{"tema_id":"84","string":"\u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2","created":"2015-03-13 11:26:49","code":null,"modified":"2015-03-15 21:48:41","notes":[{"@type":"variants","@lang":"en","@value":"var.dim. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd\nlat. crocus sativus, safranum"},{"@type":"GENERAL DEFINITION","@lang":"en","@value":"Saffron is a plant. The dried stigmas (thread-like parts of the flower) are used to make saffron spice. It can take saffron blossoms to produce a single pound of saffron spice. Saffron is largely cultivated and harvested by hand. Due to the amount of labor involved in harvesting, saffron is considered one of the world's most expensive spices. The stigmas are also used to make medicine.\nThe drug, which derives from the orange-coloured stigmas of the crocus, enjoyed wide application in ancient medicine. Its mildly astringent and softening properties among others recommended it as an effective component of eye-salves and in fact it often turns up in the lists of ingredients in papyrus prescriptions.\nOne comes across crocus in collyrium prescriptions, and they are called 'crocodes', or 'diacrocodes'."},{"@type":"A. LANGUAGE BETWEEN TEXT AND CONTEXT","@lang":"en","@value":"1-2. Etymology \u2013 General Linguistic Section.\n\nA degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the word \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2, although it can be traced to have stemmed immediately from Persian. Saffron\u00a0 comes from the Latin word safranum (Iridaceae). Safranum comes from the Persian intercessor \u0632\u0639\u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646, or za'fer\u00e2n. Old Persian is the first language in which the use of saffron in cooking is recorded, with references dating back thousands of years.\nThe name of the genus is derived from the Greek \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2. This, in turn, is probably a loan word from a Semitic language, related to Hebrew, kark\u014dm, Aramaic, kurkama, and Arabic, kurkum.\nSaffron in therapeutics. The Ebers papyrus (ca. 1550 B.C.) mentions saffron as an ingredient in a cure for kidney problems. It was recommended as an addition to each meal as \u201ca cheering cardiac medicament,\u201d but with a warming that excessive quantities acted as an appetite depressant, although a reasonable amount would stimulate appetite and ease headaches and hangovers. In the recent times, it is being used as a remedy for catarrhal infections, for melancholia, to treat liver enlargement, as a nerve sedative, as a carminative, diaphoretic, and emmenagogue.\u00a0 Saffron has been discovered to be easily the richest known source of riboflavin. Saffron would be likely to offset the decreased diffusivity of oxygen caused by elevated plasma protein and cholesterol level, reduced the severity of atherosclerosis. In addition, serum cholesterol levels were reduced by half. The addition of crocetin to an appropriate nutrient fermentation broth was found to increase the yield of antibiotics and other products.\nModern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that saffron extract or its constituents have antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor effects, radical-scavenging, learning and memory improving properties. Saffron extract also has chemoprotective properties and protects from genotoxin-induced oxidative stress in mice. Anticonvulsant effects have been reported and maximal electroshock models.\nOphthalmologists used saffron against epiphora (running eyes), as an astringent. Crocin analogs isolated from saffron significantly increased the blood flow in the retina and choroid as well as facilitated retinal function recovery and it could be used to treat ischemic retinopathy and\/or age-related macular degeneration.\n3. Abbreviation(s) in the papyri.\nP.Ant. II 66.4 \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf(\u03bd); P.Athen. inv. 2780\/1.20 (not abbreviated); P.Mich. inv. 3243.9 \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf(\u03bd)."},{"@type":"B. TESTIMONIA - A selection of representative sources","@lang":"en","@value":"Discorides, Mat. med. I 25-26 (I 29.9-31 Wellmann): \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c3\u03c4\u1f76 \u03ba\u03c1\u03ac\u03c4\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f10\u03bd \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1fc7 \u03c7\u03c1\u03ae\u03c3\u03b5\u03b9 \u1f41 \u039a\u03c9\u03c1\u03cd\u03ba\u03b9\u03bf\u03c2, \u03c0\u03c1\u03cc\u03c3\u03c6\u03b1\u03c4\u03cc\u03c2 \u03c4\u03b5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b5\u1f54\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5\u03c2, \u1f40\u03bb\u03af\u03b3\u03bf\u03bd \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03ba\u1f78\u03bd \u1f14\u03c7\u03c9\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u1f15\u03bb\u03b9\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2, \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03bc\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03c2, \u1f41\u03bb\u03bf\u03bc\u03b5\u03bb\u03ae\u03c2, \u1f04\u03b8\u03c1\u03b1\u03c5\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2, \u1f00\u03bb\u03b9\u03c0\u03ae\u03c2, \u03c0\u03bb\u03ae\u03c1\u03b7\u03c2, \u03b2\u03ac\u03c0\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u03ad\u03c3\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u1f70\u03c2 \u03c7\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2, \u03bf\u1f50\u03ba \u03b5\u1f50\u03c1\u03c9\u03c4\u03b9\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f22 \u1f30\u03ba\u03bc\u03ac\u03b6\u03c9\u03bd, \u1f10\u03c0\u03b1\u03ba\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u1f10\u03bd \u03c4\u1fc7 \u1f40\u03c3\u03bc\u1fc7 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b4\u03c1\u03b9\u03bc\u03cd\u03c2\u00b7 \u1f41 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u03bc\u1f74 \u03c4\u03bf\u03b9\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f22 \u03c0\u03b1\u03bb\u03b1\u03b9\u03cc\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c3\u03c4\u03b9\u03bd \u1f22 \u1f00\u03c0\u03bf\u03b2\u03b5\u03b2\u03c1\u03b5\u03b3\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 (\"Corycian crocus is the best for medicinal use \u2013 new and well coloured, having somewhat white tendrils, somewhat long, having all its parts hard to break, without fat, full, colouring the hands, not dacayed or moist, alluring in scent and a little sharper; for that which is not such is either old or steeped\").\nSaffron, and fennel juice, \u03c4\u1f78 \u03f2\u03c0\u03ad\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1 \u1f01\u03c1\u03bc\u03cc\u03b6\u03bf\u03bd \u03c0\u03c1\u1f78\u03f2 \u1f00\u03bc\u03b2\u03bb\u03c5\u03c9\u03c0\u03af\u03b1\u03f2 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u1f70 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b9\u03c4\u03bf\u03f2 \u03bb\u03b5\u03b1\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bf\u1f34\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c7\u03bf\u03bb\u1fc6\u03f2 \u1f00\u03bb\u03b5\u03ba\u03c4\u03bf\u03c1\u03af\u03b4\u03c9\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03b1\u03c1\u03ac\u03b8\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c7\u03c5\u03bb\u03bf\u1fe6, Mat. med. III 46.2 (II 60 Wellmann: \"the semen is expecially good against amblyopia, pasted with wine and bile of alectorides, and saffron and\u00a0fenugreek juice\").\nGalen, Simpl.\u00a0VII 10.57 (XII 48.3-12 K\u00fchn) describes the properties of crocus sativus: [\u03bd\u03b6\u02b9=57 \u03a0\u03b5\u03c1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5.] \u039a\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f14\u03c7\u03b5\u03b9 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bd \u03c4\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c3\u03c4\u1fe6\u03c6\u03bf\u03bd \u1f40\u03bb\u03af\u03b3\u03bf\u03bd, \u1f45\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1 \u1f10\u03b4\u03b5\u03af\u03c7\u03b8\u03b7 \u03b3\u03b5\u1ff6\u03b4\u03b5\u03c2 \u03c8\u03c5\u03c7\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd. \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u03b1\u03c4\u03b5\u1fd6 \u03b4\u2019 \u1f10\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1ff7 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b1 \u03c0\u03bf\u03b9\u03cc\u03c4\u03b7\u03c2 \u03c4\u03b5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b4\u03cd\u03bd\u03b1\u03bc\u03b9\u03c2, \u1f65\u03c3\u03c4\u03b5 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u1f45\u03bb\u03b7\u03bd \u03bf\u1f50\u03c3\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03b4\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u03ad\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03bc\u1f72\u03bd \u03b5\u1f36\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd \u03c4\u03ac\u03be\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2, \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03c0\u03c1\u03ce\u03c4\u03b7\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u03be\u03b7\u03c1\u03b1\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd, \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c4\u03bf \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03bd \u1f14\u03c7\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u03b9, \u03c3\u03c5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b9\u03bc\u03c9\u03c1\u03bf\u03cd\u03c3\u03b7\u03c2 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c4\u03bf \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03b2\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c3\u03c4\u03cd\u03c8\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2. \u03bf\u1f37\u03c2 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u1f02\u03bd \u03bc\u1f74 \u03c3\u03c6\u03bf\u03b4\u03c1\u1ff6\u03c2 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b9 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03bf\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f40\u03bb\u03af\u03b3\u03b7 \u03c0\u03c1\u03bf\u03c3\u1fc7 \u03c3\u03c4\u03cd\u03c8\u03b9\u03c2, \u1f36\u03c3\u03bf\u03bd \u03b4\u03cd\u03bd\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03c4\u03b1\u1fd6\u03c2 \u1f10\u03bc\u03c0\u03bb\u03b1\u03c3\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03b1\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9\u03c2 \u03bf\u1f50\u03c3\u03af\u03b1\u03b9\u03c2, \u1f03\u03c2, \u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03cc\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9 \u03c3\u03c5\u03bd\u03c5\u03c0\u03ac\u03c1\u03c7\u03c9\u03c3\u03b9, \u03bc\u1f74 \u03c3\u03c6\u03cc\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f70\u03c2 \u1f10\u03b4\u03b5\u03af\u03ba\u03bd\u03c5\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd \u1f51\u03c0\u03ac\u03c1\u03c7\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd (\"Crocus is a moderate astringent, that has shown a land cooling. But quality and strength, in this, have a warming force, so that the whole being of saffron belongs to the second class of the heating agents, being the first class of the drying agents, and for this reason it has also a peptic digestion. Saffron belongs to a moderate astringent agent. Those, in fact, which are most heating in the medicaments, have a little efficacy in astringensy; as well as they are substances which are indicated for plasters, that, when they are warming, they do not absorb enough peptic efficacy\").\nGalen, Comp. medic. sec. loc. IV 4 (XII 715.15-716.1 K\u00fchn) \u03c4\u1f78 \u03a0\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b9\u03b1\u03bd\u1f78\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u2019 \u03bf\u1f34\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03c1\u03bf\u03ba\u1ff6\u03b4\u03b5\u03c2, \u1fa7 \u03c7\u03c1\u03ce\u03bc\u03b5\u03b8\u03b1 \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03bc\u03b9\u03b3\u03bd\u03cd\u03bd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c2 \u1f10\u03bb\u03ac\u03c7\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03c0\u03c1\u03bf\u03b5\u03b9\u03c1\u03b7\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03bf\u03b9\u03c2. \u1f14\u03c7\u03b5\u03b9 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c4\u03bf \u03c0\u03bb\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd \u03bc\u1f72\u03bd \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03bd, \u1f00\u03c6\u2019 \u03bf\u1f57 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03c1\u03bf\u03ba\u1ff6\u03b4\u03b5\u03c2 \u1f40\u03bd\u03bf\u03bc\u03ac\u03b6\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9, \u03bc\u03ad\u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b4\u2019 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1ff7 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u1fe5\u03c5\u03c0\u03c4\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03bb\u03bb\u03b9\u03ba\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f14\u03bd\u03b9\u03b1 (\"Paccianum; it has the greatest for eye diseases with wine, that we use mixing a little of saffron to the alredy called pharmaka;\u00a0 it contains most of saffron, for which reason it is named the saffron collyrion; it has also metallic elements which extirpate harshnesses\")."},{"@type":"C. COMMENTARY","@lang":"en","@value":"The moldable sediment deposited in unguents, as in LSJ s.v., quoting the Elder Pliny, NH XIII 19: faecem unguenti magma appellant. Magma is again left unqualified below at GMP II 5, vi 17 and viii 10, although at v 18 it is \u03ba\u03c1\u1f79\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 \u03bc\u1f71\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03bf\u03f2. Sediment from a saffron unguent. \nGalen does not usually leave \u03bc\u1f71\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1 unqualified (but see a recipe for a plaster of many uses he attributes to Andromachus, Comp. per gen. VI 14 (XIII 925 K\u00fchn). Otherwise Galen's habit is to specify the type of unguent yielding the sediment, with his most common qualifier being \u03bc\u1f71\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1 \u1f21\u03b4\u1f7b\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bf\u03bd. Sediment from an aromatic unguent (e.g. Comp. sec. loc. VIII 5 [XIII 183\u20135 K], and VIII 7 [XIII 204 K]; see also Antid. I 6 [XIV 39 K\u00fchn]), where it is an ingredient in the Elder Andromachus' theriac called Galene; I 15 (XIV 84 K); I 16 (XIV 101\u20132 K), in Damocrates' theriac; II 9 (XIV 154 K\u00fchn), in King Mithridates' theriac; II 10 (XIV 161 K\u00fchn), in one of the theriacs attributed to Aelius Gallus; Ther. ad Pis. 12 (XIV 259 K\u00fchn), again in a theriac attributed to Andromachus). \u03bc\u1f71\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1 \u1f21\u03b4\u1f7b\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bf\u03bd is also mentioned by Paulus Aegineta (III 24.4 [CMG IX.1, 194 Heib.]). As a medicament on its own and also in compounds \u03bc\u1f71\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1 \u1f21\u03b4\u1f7b\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bf\u03bd is praised for its ability to dry, soften, and soothe. After putting up for scorn a doctor at Rome because he thinks \u1f21\u03b4\u1f7b\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bf\u03bd is a plant or other simple, and after he has tried to purchase it from the dealers in unguents, Galen quotes the hexameter verses in which Andromachus explains its preparation (Antid. I 10 [XIV 52 K\u00fchn]); he also gives a prose version for preparing the \u1f21\u03b4\u1f7b\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bf\u03bd he attributes to Magnus with many of the same ingredients (Ther. ad Pis. 13 [XIV 262 K\u00fchn]).\nIn manufacturing, saffron extracts are used as fragrance in perfumes and as a dye for cloth. Dyes and colored garments (principal pigment of saffron is \u03b1-crocin, a water-soluble carotenoid).\n\nSaffron as perfume. A pleasantly odoriferous compound, safranal, develops during the drying process, probably by enzymatic or thermal dissociation of the bitter compound, picrocrocin."},{"@type":"D. BIBLIOGRAPHY","@lang":"en","@value":"For additional information and further references, see Gazza 1956, 86; Pr\u00e9aux 1956, 137, 138 with n. 7; Nielsen 1974, 40; Youtie 1975, 562; Andr\u00e9 1985, 79; Horak 1991, 128\u201333; Durling 1993, 212; Fournet 1994, 318; Andorlini 1995a, 108\u20139 ad II 37\u201338; Fausti 1997, 102; Reiter 1997, 808; Azzarello 2003, 51 (PK\u00f6ln X 410.3n.); Clackson 2004, 78 (PHorak 14.7n.); Maravela\u2013Solbakk, GMP II 7.2n.; Mitthof, GMP II 8, with n. 40, p. 132.\nAlison Rix, George Maw, Joseph Hooker, AND THE GENUS CROCUS, in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Volume 25 (pages 176\u2013187). Article first published online: 6 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1111\/j.1467-8748.2008.00616.x\n\u00a0"},{"@type":"E. CPGM reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"BKT III 32-33.8; O.Bodl. II 2181.4; O.Bodl. II 2185.2; P.Amst. inv. 148.4; P.Ant. II 66.4; P.Ant. III 134.4; P.Athen. inv. 2780\/1, I, 20; P.Berlin. M\u00f6ller 13, ii, 1; P.Mich. inv. 482.24; P.Mich. inv. 3243.9; P.Oxy. VIII 1088, i, 6; P.Ross. Georg. V 57.7; P.Ryl. I 29a.38; GMP II 4, ii.11, 17; P.Ryl. III 531 verso, i, 47; P.Strassb. inv. Gr. 90, i, r, a.4; P.Tebt. II 677.11-12 (= I. Andorlini, Trattato, ii 38, p. 108); GMP II 5 V.18, VII.21; GMP II 6 A.2, 8 (= GMP I, 12.2); TMP 5.19."},{"@type":"E. DDbDP reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"O.Stras I 619 (1. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 (\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7\u03bc\u1f70\u03c2) \u03b2); P.Bingen 79 (7. \u03ba\u03c1\u0323\u03cc\u0323\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 (\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7\u03bc\u03b1\u1f76) \u03b7); P.Cair.Zen I 59069 (21. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5); P.Haun II 20 (8. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 \u03bf\u1f50\u03b3(\u03ba\u03af\u03b1\u03c2) \u03b3); P.Horak 14 (7. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 (\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7\u03bc\u03b1\u1f76) \u03b2); P.Koeln X 410 (3. \u03ba\u0323\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5); P.Lund IV 11 (11. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 (\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7\u03bc\u03b1\u1f76) \u03b7); PSI XV 1558 (8. \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5, \u1f14\u03be\u03bf\u03b8\u03b5\u03bd(*) \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u1f00\u03c6\u03ad\u03b8\u03b7, \u1f35(*)\u03bd\u03b1 \u03bc\u1f74 \u03bb\u03b1\u03ba\u03b7\u03b8\u1fc7, and 17. \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5 \u03bc\u03bd(\u03b1-) )."},{"@type":"AUTHOR","@lang":"en","@value":"Isabella Andorlini"}]}