{"tema_id":"53","string":"\u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1","created":"2014-09-15 16:57:25","code":null,"notes":[{"@type":"variants","@lang":"en","@value":"var. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1, \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd (Ion. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd); dim. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 (var. \u1f11\u03b4\u03c1\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7), \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (pap.), \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b4\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (inscr.), \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b9\u03bd\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd (pap.)\nlat. hydria"},{"@type":"GENERAL DEFINITION","@lang":"en","@value":"Water-jar conventionally pictured as having two horizontal side-handles for easy lifting and a vertical handle for carrying the vessel or when pouring. The primary function, made clear by the etymology of the term from \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1, is well established in ancient evidence. In documentary papyri this container is filled not only with water but also with other contents (e.g. foodstuffs). Moreover, small-sized pots called \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \/ \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 served as receptacles for cosmetics, such as perfume and unguents, and for therapeutic ointments and eye-salves. Medical writers occasionally refer to these containers, as do writers of private letters, such as a papyrus letter dating to the late-IV century CE (P.Oxy. LIX 4001)."},{"@type":"A. LANGUAGE BETWEEN TEXT AND CONTEXT","@lang":"en","@value":"1-2. Etymology \u2013 General linguistic commentary\nThe derivation \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 (Lat. hydria) < \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 is clear[1] and reveals the content par excellence of this vessel, as well as its original function. The etymology was already pointed out by ancient sources, particularly by Isid. Orig. XX 6,4 hydria genus vasis aquatilis per derivationem vocata; \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 enim Graeci aquam dicunt.\nAlong with thefeminine \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 (var. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1)[2] the neuter \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd (Ion. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd) occurs many times. The most common diminutive form also in medical sources is \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7, attested in the variant \u1f11\u03b4\u03c1\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 in papyrological evidence.[3] Furthermore, Gal. Ling. s. dict. exolet. expl. \u03c5 (XIX 148,6 K.) s.v. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03bf\u03bd\u00b7 \u1f21 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f70 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03ba\u03bf\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1ff6\u03c2 testifies to \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03bf\u03bd as a diminutive of \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 referring to a passage by Hippocrates ([1]), but the most likely form of the word in the Hippocratic text is the Ionic neuter \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd.[4]\nThe Greek term is paralleled by Mycenaean u-do-ro (\/udros\/ or \/udron\/), alike denoting a water-pot, larger andbucket-shaped in this case.[5]\nThe word \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 was borrowed into Coptic (forms hydria \/ thedria)[6] and remains in modern Greek as an archaeological terminus technicus denoting the ancient item, though it does not have a lexical and functional continuity in everyday life.[7]\n\u00a0\n3. Abbreviation(s) in the papyri\n\u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af(\u03b1\u03b9): O.Buch. 95,3\n\u1f51\u03b4(\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03c2): P.Bingen 120,24\n\u1f51\u03b4(\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03c2): P.Ryl. IV 589,82-3\n\u1f11\u03b4\u03c1\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba(\u03b1\u03c2): P.Mich. II 121,2 ii 8\n\u1f11\u03b4\u03c1(\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba\u03b1\u03c2) \/ \u1f11\u03b4\u03c1(\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd): P.Mich. II 121,3 i 3 and 4 i 3 (respectively)\nThe abbreviated form does not occur in passages of medical relevance.\n\n\n[1] Cf. CHANTRAINE, DELGI 1152-3 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1; FRISK, GEWII 957-9 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1; BEEKES, EDG II 1526-7 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1.\n\n\n[2] On the very common vocalic interchange \u03b9 > \u03b5\u03b9 in the papyri, cf. MAYSER, GGP I\/1 66-70 and GIGNAC, GGP I 190-1.\n\n\n[3] On the phonetic interchange \u03c5 > \u03b5 and \u03b9 > \u03c5 in the papyri, see MAYSER, GGP I\/1 80-2. On the variant \u1f11\u03b4\u03c1\u03cd\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7, see GIGNAC, GGP I 273. Only the papyrus SPP XX 46r,14-5 (II-III CE, ?) attests the double diminutive suffix \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd, whereas \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b4\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd appears in several Attic and Delian inscriptions. For other forms and compounds of the term, no one of which is attested in medical sources, see BONATI 2014 s.v. 2[1].\n\n\n[4] \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b5\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd cod. A (\u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b9\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd in the apparatus of Littr\u00e9\u2019s edition). Cf. LSJ9 1844 s.v. Nevertheless cf. the wrong form \u1f35\u03b4\u03c1\u03c5\u03bf\u03bd in the quotation of the Hippocratic passage in Ps.-Gal. In Hipp. Hum. comment. II 38,5 (XVI 344,8 K.).\n\n\n[5] Cf. CHADWICK-BAUMACH 1963, 250 s.v.\n\n\n[6] Cf. respectively CHERIX, IGC 166 s.v. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 and CRUM, CD 139b s.v. The term is not lemmatized in F\u00d6RSTER, WGW.\n\n\n[7] Cf. e.g. DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b XIV 7367 s.v.; STAMATAKOS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 1023 s.v.; BABINIOTIS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 1824 s.v.\n\n"},{"@type":"B. TESTIMONIA - A selection of representative sources","@lang":"en","@value":"1. Hp. Hum. 11,7-9 (V 492,4-6 L.) \u2013 V-IV BCE\n\u1f65\u03c3\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd \u03bd\u03ad\u03bf\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u03b1\u03c0\u03b7\u03b4\u1fb7, \u03c0\u03b1\u03bb\u03b1\u03b9\u03bf\u03cd\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03c3\u03c4\u03ad\u03b3\u03b5\u03b9, \u03bf\u1f55\u03c4\u03c9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f21 \u03b3\u03b1\u03c3\u03c4\u1f74\u03c1 \u03b4\u03b9\u03af\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u03c6\u1f74\u03bd, \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03c3\u03c4\u03ac\u03b8\u03bc\u03b7\u03bd \u1f34\u03c3\u03c7\u03b5\u03b9 \u1f65\u03c3\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd.\nAs a water-pot, when new, lets the liquid pass through it, but holds it as time goes on, so the stomach lets nourishment pass, and like a vessel retains a sediment.\n(Transl. W.H.S. Jones [Cambridge-London 1959] 83)\n\u00a0\n2. Gal. De comp. med. sec. loc. I 2 (XII 437,2-5 K.) \u2013 II CE\n\u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u03b4\u1f72 \u03b4\u1f76\u03c2 \u1f22 \u03c4\u03c1\u1f76\u03c2 \u1f00\u03bd\u03b1\u03b2\u03c1\u03ac\u03c3\u1fc3, \u1f10\u03ba\u03b8\u03bb\u03af\u03c8\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f51\u03b3\u03c1\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c3\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03af\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03bc\u03b5\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2 \u1f00\u03c0\u03cc\u03b8\u03bf\u03c5v \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03bd, [\u2026] \u03c7\u03c1\u1ff6, \u03c0\u03b5\u03c1\u03b9\u03b1\u03bb\u03b5\u03af\u03c6\u03c9\u03bd \u03b4\u1f76\u03c2 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u1f21\u03bc\u03ad\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f70\u03c2 \u03c4\u03c1\u03af\u03c7\u03b1\u03c2.\nWhenever it is boiled two or three times, and the fluid is squeezed and well strained, put it in a pot [\u2026] and use, smearing the hair twice a day.\n\u00a0\n3. P.Oxy. LIX 4001,22-30 \u2013 late IV CE \n\u1f14\u03c3\u03c7\u03b1\u03bc\u03b5(\u03bd) | \u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f70 \u1f04\u03bb\u03bb\u03b1 \u03c0\u03ac\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1 \u03c7\u03c9\u03c1\u1f76\u03c2 \u03bc\u03cc\u03bd\u03b7\u0323\u03c2\u0323 | \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03c5\u0308\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 (l. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03c2) \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03bf\u03be\u03c5\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 (l. \u1f40\u03be\u03c5\u03b3\u03b3\u03af\u03bf\u03c5). \u1f45\u03b8\u03b5\u03bd | \u03c3\u0323\u03c0\u0323\u03bf\u0323\u03c5\u0323\u03b4\u0323\u03b1\u03c3\u03ac\u03c4\u03c9 \u1f41 \u1f00\u03b4\u03b5\u03bb\u03c6\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f21\u03bc\u1ff6\u03bd | \u0398\u03b5\u0323\u03cc\u0323\u03b4\u0323\u03c9\u03c1\u03bf\u03c2 \u03b6\u03b7\u03c4\u1fc6\u03c3\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b7\u0323\u03c0\u0323\u03bf\u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u03c4\u0323\u03bf\u0323\u03bd\u0323 | \u03bd\u03b1\u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76\u0323 \u03b3\u0323\u03bd\u0323\u1ff6\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u03c0\u03b5\u0323\u03c1\u0323[\u1f76] \u03b1\u0323\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6\u0323 | [\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 ]\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323 \u00a0\u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd (l. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03bd), \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03ad\u03c3\u03c7\u03b5\u03bd \u1f00\u03bd|\u03c4\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03bf\u03be\u03c5\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 (l. \u1f40\u03be\u03c5\u03b3\u03b3\u03af\u03bf\u03c5) \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03c1\u03af\u03c9\u03bd \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u0323\u03af\u0323|\u27e6\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u00a0 \u0323\u27e7\u03b1\u0323\u03bd (l. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03bd).\nWe had all the other things too except only the jar of grease. So let our brother Theodorus be eager to search for it ... [make sure to look \u2026 ] and to know about it \u2026 jar, he provided instead of the grease a jar of ointment.\n(Transl. IOANNIDOU 1992, 159 [slightly modified])\n\u00a0\n4. Paul. III 2, 2,4-6 (CMG IX 1, 132,19-21 Heiberg) \u2013 VII CE\n\u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u03b4\u1f72 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f10\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03c4\u03c1\u03af\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c6\u03b8\u1fc7, \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c4\u03bf \u03b4\u03b9\u03ae\u03b8\u03b5\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03af\u03be\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1fc7 \u1f00\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03af\u1fb3 \u1f00\u03bd\u03b5\u03bb\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c7\u03c1\u1ff6 \u03c3\u03c5\u03b3\u03c7\u03c1\u03af\u03c9\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03b8' \u1f21\u03bc\u03ad\u03c1\u03b1\u03bd.\nWhen a third of the oil remains, strain it and, having mixed it with the acacia, put it aside in a little vessel, and anoint (sc. the hair) with it every day."},{"@type":"C. COMMENTARY","@lang":"en","@value":"1. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 and its medical sources\nThe word \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 and its derivatives dominate in all our written sources.[1] The earliest attestations of the feminine form with the core meaning \u201cwater-jar\u201d date to the V-IV cent. BCE, especially in Athenian contexts,[2] whereas the Ionic neuter \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd, i.e. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd (\u00abbucket or pitcher\u00bb, LSJ9 1844 s.v.), is already attested in Hdt. III 14,7. Vessels called \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 can also be found in connection with other products in addition to water: such as wine,[3] flour,[4] oil[5] and unguent,[6] so that the term loses specificity and acquires the generic meaning of \u00abvessel of any kind\u00bb (LSJ9 1844 s.v. II).[7]\nIn medical literature the word \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 occurs many times in the expression \u1f44\u03bd\u03bf\u03b9 \/ \u1f40\u03bd\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03bf\u03b9 \u1f51\u03c0\u1f78 \u03c4\u03b1\u1fd6\u03c2 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03b9\u03c2 (\u03b3\u03b5\u03bd\u03bd\u03ce\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03b9), most likely referring to woodlice that are \u201cborn underneath the hydriai\u201d,[8] i.e. insects proliferating under the base orstand of vessels due to the safety, darkness, and humidity of the space. These many-legged arthropods are used in several therapeutic compounds, such as in a remedy for earache in which they are chopped fine and mixed with \u03bc\u03cd\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd.[9] In Orib. Coll. X 8,25 (CMG VI 1,2, 52,22 Raeder) \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd\u03c4\u03bb\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c3\u03b8\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b3\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd \u03c0\u03bb\u03b5\u03af\u03bf\u03c3\u03b9\u03bd \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03b9\u03c2 \u2013 in a chapter on the virtues and effects of bathing in hot and cold water (\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1\u1f76 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03bf\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c8\u03c5\u03c7\u03c1\u03bf\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03af\u03b1\u03c2) \u2013 the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 is used as a \u2018pitcher\u2019 or a \u2018washbasin\u2019 to pour the water down over the head during the bath. In a quite unclear and difficult simile Hippocrates employs the Ionic neuter \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03ae\u03ca\u03bf\u03bd to compare part of the digestive process of the stomach with a vessel ([1]).[10]\nOnly two passages of medical authors refer to the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 as a container for pharmaceutical use: [2] and [4]. Although the two prescriptions involved are compounded with different ingredients, both of them are ointments to be applied to the hair. The former is an unguent intended to guard and preserve the hair (\u1f04\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03bc\u03bc\u03b1 \u03b4\u03b9\u03b1\u03c6\u03c5\u03bb\u03b1\u03ba\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03bd \u03c4\u03c1\u03b9\u03c7\u1ff6\u03bd), as well as color it black; the latter, taken from Cleopatra, may also affect the color of the hair, said to be gray, but the emphasis in the prescription is on the oiliness of the preparation itself. In both cases vessels called \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \/ \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 have the function of small containers for ointments employed for the storage of the remedies prior to their use, as confirmed by the verbal indicators \u1f00\u03c0\u03bf\u03c4\u03af\u03b8\u03b7\u03bc\u03b9, in the sense of \u00abput away\u00bb, \u00abstore away\u00bb ([2]), and \u1f00\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9\u03c1\u03ad\u03c9, \u00abset aside\u00bb ([4]).\nThe function of the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 as a small container in which to store and transport therapeutic products is attested in just one documentary papyrus dating back to the late IV century CE, P.Oxy. LIX 4001 ([3]). The papyrus is a letter written by certain Eudaemon to his mother, grandmothers and a woman called Cyra. Eudaemon, who is a doctor, sends the letter to his surgery presumably in Oxyrhynchus, as the address on the back shows (\u1f00\u03c0\u03cc\u03b4\u03bf\u03c2\u0323 \u03b5\u0323\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd). He is working away from home for professional reasons, and he now asks for the means to make some medical implements on his own. He also notifies his family that he received a \u00abhydria of eye-salves\u00bb instead of a \u00abhydria of animal grease\u00bb. The medicinal use of the \u1f40\u03be\u03cd\u03b3\u03b3\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd, animal fat, is frequently confirmedby Greek medical authors, and it appears also in one of the four prescriptions for skin and eye-ointments preserved in SB XXIV 15917,21 (II CE, Ankyron [MP3 2398.12; LDAB 4702]).[11] Ancient eye-ointments commonly had the form of semi-solid sticks, as their ingredients were fashioned into loaf-shaped tablets and then dried for storage,[12] but it is likely that the \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb\u03bf\u03cd\u03c1\u03b9\u03b1 mentioned in the papyrus letter were ready to use, already grounded down and mixedwith a liquefying substance so as to be ready to apply. As a result the fact that both the \u1f40\u03be\u03cd\u03b3\u03b3\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd and the \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb\u03bf\u03cd\u03c1\u03b9\u03b1 had, in all likelihood, an ointment-like consistency further underscores why they are said to be stored in small vessels called \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \/ \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 by various medical authors.\n\u00a0\n2. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 word and object\nThe passages of medical content (see [B] and C[1]) do not provide information about the physical appearance of the vessel. The word \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1, however, corresponds to a well-recognized type of container in the (conventional) archeological vocabulary, and it is one of the commonest shapes depicted in Attic vase-painting, especially in the so called \u201cfountain-house scenes\u201d in which women fetch water from a fountain.[13] A jar incribed \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1, for example, appears in a representation of Achilles pursuing Troilos on the famous Fran\u00e7ois vase (ca. 570 BCE) found near Chiusi and now in the Museo Archeologico at Florence. The most typical features of this vessel established by ancient evidence are the presence of three handles \u2013 the two horizontal ones on either side of the body for lifting, and the vertical handle at the back for pouring or carrying when empty \u2013 as well as the fairly narrow neck set off from body. Perhaps two quite puzzling adjectives attested in two documentary papyri might refer to these visual aspects of the container. In BGU XIII 2359,2 (late III CE, ?) a \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b5\u0323\u03bd\u03c4\u03b9\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03ae (l. \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03ae) is mentioned, followed at l.10 by a \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f70 \u1f14\u03c7\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b1 \u03c6\u03ac\u03b2\u03b1 (l. \u03c6\u03ac\u03b2\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1). The modifier \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03cc\u03c2 appears only once in Thphr. HP III 9, 6,3,[14] denoting the \u2018prickly\u2019 nature of the leaves of the male fir tree (\u1f40\u03be\u03cd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03b1 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03ce\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03b1 \u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f04\u03c1\u03c1\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 [sc. \u03c4\u1f70 \u03c6\u03cd\u03bb\u03bb\u03b1]).[15] The author of the editio princeps of the papyrus translates \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03ae as \u00abengraved vase\u00bb (p. 195).[16] But onemight also suppose that \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03cc\u03c2 alludes to the narrowing neck of this kind of vessel, resembling a pointed shape narrowing just before the top.[17] A list of household items on papyrus, SB XXII 15250,10 (VI CE, Herakleopolites or Arsinoites), includes among the objects a \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b5\u03b3(\u03ac\u03bb\u03b7) \u03b3\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u03b8\u03b9\u03b1(\u03ba\u1f74) \u03c3\u03c4\u03b9\u03bb\u03bb( )\u00a0 \u0323 [. The adjective \u03b3\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u03b8\u03b9\u03b1\u03ba\u03cc\u03c2, not attested elsewhere and not recorded in any dictionary, is a derivative from the noun \u03b3\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd\u03b8\u03bf\u03c2, \u00abfist\u00bb. Since \u03b3\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd\u03b8\u03bf\u03c2 can also acquire a metrological value,[18] DIETHART 1993, 82-3 translates \u03b3\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u03b8\u03b9\u03b1\u03ba\u03cc\u03c2 as \u00abeine \u201cFaust\u201d hoch\u00bb (p. 80). The adjective might rather be interpreted as \u00abto be carried by hand\u00bb, implying that one can make use of its handles, and thus highlighting an important morphological feature of the container.[19] \u00a0\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 The history of this very common water-jar reaches back into the Bronze Age,[20] but the two principal types were established in decorated Attic pottery of the late VI and V centuries BCE: the former with flat shoulder and the neck set off from body (see supra), the other round-shouldered, with the neck forming a curve with the body. The latter is conventionally definedas a \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u03c0\u03af\u03c2 by archaeologists, even if no actual evidence for this distinction occurs in literary sources (cf. e.g. Ar. Lys. 327 and 358). From the IV century BCE onwards the body of the containergrows taller and even more fusiform and narrow, with higher foot and more projection of the vertical handle.[21] The household counterpart (household-ware hydria) was likewise very common and its simplified shape was more suitable for a daily use: the body became progressively broader and finally nearly globular, the rim was flat, the handles were rolled and the vertical handle tended to slip downward on the vessel.[22] Hydriai used as balloting boxes or as cinerary urns[23] were ordinarily bronze and completely similar in shape to the ceramic exemplars, but the hydriai dedicated as votive gifts and listed among temple treasures were often made of precious material such as gold and silver.[24] Interesting is the case of core-formed glass miniatures (hydriskai), imitating the shape of the three-handled and narrow-necked pottery hydria, that very probably contained scented oils or cosmetics.[25]\nBeyond the conventional designation, the analysis of written sources suggests that the noun \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 was not always applied to a specific form of vessel but was rather used with a more or less generic value.[26]\nEven though in [2], [3] and [4] \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \/ \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 does not represent an actual technical term in the vocabulary for medical containers, it is likely that the word has been used in connection with remedies having an ointment-like consistency because of the shape and the considerable versatility and manageability of this little vessel. Assuming that the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \/ \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7 of medical sources has a narrow neck and a vertical handle like the aforementioned glass hydriskai for cosmetics and oils, its morphology seems to be particularly suitable for closing and sealing.[27] Thus, it is likely that this kind of features represents the main reason why in the papyrus letter ([3]) a \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 has been chosen to contain the therapeutic products mentioned: the \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 actually received by Eudaemon and the \u1f40\u03be\u03cd\u03b3\u03b3\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd previously requested by him but never dispatched. In all likelihood, these special details of the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 attended to by Eudaemon\u2019s family will have assured proper preservation of the remedies during their transport from the \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd in Oxyrhynchus to the village where Eudaemon was apparently working as a physician.\n\n\n[1] See BONATI 2016 s.v.\n\n\n[2] Cf. e.g. Hellanic. FGrHist 4 F 67 ap. Athen. XI 462b; Diocl. Com. fr. 1 K.-A. ap. Poll. X 78,5; Ar. V. 926 and Av. 602.\n\n\n[3] Thus in Ar. fr. 139 K.-A. \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03b4\u03b1\u03bd\u03b5\u03af\u03b6\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd \u03c0\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c7\u03bf\u03c5\u03bd \u1f22 \u03bc\u03b5\u03af\u03b6\u03bf\u03bd\u03b1 according to Poll. X 74,5 \u1f65\u03c3\u03c4' \u03bf\u1f50 \u03bc\u03cc\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u1f55\u03b4\u03b1\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f00\u03bb\u03bb\u1f70 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bf\u1f34\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5 \u1f02\u03bd \u03b5\u1f34\u03b7 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u1f21 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1.\n\n\n[4] Cf. e.g. LXX 1 Ki. 17, 12,3, as well as 14,2 and 16,1.\n\n\n[5] Cf. e.g. Georg. Sync. Ecloga chronographica 223,14 Mosshammer \u03c3\u1f7a\u03bd \u03c4\u1fc7 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u1fb3 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f10\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5; schol. P. N. X 64a,4-5 (III 174,14-5 Drachmann) \u03c4\u03af\u03b8\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u1f08\u03b8\u03ae\u03bd\u03b7\u03c3\u03b9\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u03ac\u03b8\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c4\u03ac\u03be\u03b9\u03bd \u1f10\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c0\u03bb\u03ae\u03c1\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03b9 and 64b,3-5 (III 174,21-3 Drachmann) \u03c6\u03b7\u03c3\u1f76\u03bd \u03bf\u1f56\u03bd \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03c0\u03bb\u03ae\u03c1\u03b7 \u1f10\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b5\u03ba\u03bf\u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03ad\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u1f10\u03be \u1f08\u03b8\u03b7\u03bd\u1ff6\u03bd \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f0c\u03c1\u03b3\u03bf\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u0398\u03b5\u03b9\u03b1\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u03bd\u03b9\u03ba\u03ae\u03c3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1. \u03c4\u03bf\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u1f00\u03b8\u03bb\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f70 \u03a0\u03b1\u03bd\u03b1\u03b8\u03ae\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9\u03b1 \u03bd\u03b5\u03bd\u03b9\u03ba\u03b7\u03ba\u03cc\u03c3\u03b9 \u03b4\u03af\u03b4\u03bf\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 \u1f10\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c0\u03bb\u03ae\u03c1\u03b7\u03c2.\n\n\n[6] Cf. Ptol. Euerg. FGrHist 234 F 3 ap. Athen. X 438d-f \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b5\u03c6\u03b1\u03bb\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u1f51\u03c0\u1f72\u03c1 \u03b4\u03cd\u03bf \u03c7\u03bf\u1fb6\u03c2 \u1f14\u03c7\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b1\u03bd \u03c0\u03b1\u03c7\u03ad\u03bf\u03c2 \u03bc\u03cd\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c7\u03c5\u03b8\u1fc6\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u1f10\u03ba\u03ad\u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03c3\u03b5\u03bd, \u1f61\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03c0\u03bb\u1fc6\u03b8\u03bf\u03c2 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f00\u03b3\u03bf\u03c1\u03b1\u03b9\u03bf\u03c4\u03ad\u03c1\u03c9\u03bd \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f10\u03ba\u03c7\u03c5\u03b8\u1f72\u03bd \u03c3\u03c5\u03b3\u03ba\u03c5\u03bb\u03b9\u03c3\u03b8\u1fc6\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9.\n\n\n[7] Other meanings of \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 are \u00abballoting urn\u00bb and \u00abcinerary urn\u00bb, cf. LSJ9 1844 s.v. II 2-3 and BONATI 2016 s.v. 1[1].\n\n\n[8] Cf. Hesych. \u03b9 762,3-5 L. s.v. \u1f34\u03bf\u03c5\u03bb\u03bf\u03b9\u0387 [\u2026] \u03b6\u1ff7\u03bf\u03bd \u03c0\u03bf\u03bb\u03cd\u03c0\u03bf\u03c5\u03bd, \u1f45\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1 \u1f21\u03bc\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03bb\u03ad\u03b3\u03bf\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd \u1f44\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd. \u03c4\u03b9\u03bd\u1f72\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03c4\u03b1\u1fd6\u03c2 \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03b9\u03c2 \u03b3\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u1f44\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03c0\u03bf\u03bb\u03cd\u03c0\u03bf\u03b4\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c3\u03c5\u03c3\u03c4\u03c1\u03b5\u03c6\u03cc\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u1f34\u03bf\u03c5\u03bb\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c3\u03b9\u03bd, as well as Phot. \u03b9 149,4-5 Th. and Suda \u03b9 442,3-5 Adler s.v.\u00a0 \u00a0\n\n\n[9] Cf. e.g. Gal. De comp. med. sec. loc. III 1 (XII 623,7-8 and 641,10-1 K.).\u00a0 \u00a0\n\n\n[10] The passage is quoted and discussed by Ps.-Gal. In Hipp. Hum. comment. II 38 (XVI 344,3-345,14 K.), but no comment is made on this simile.\u00a0 \u00a0\n\n\n[11] The term is integrated also in P.Mich. XVII 758 (inv. 21) A,9, cf. YOUTIE 1996, 7-8. Among Greek documentary papyri it is attested in just four documents containing lists of goods and products: P.K\u00f6ln VII 318,6 (VII-VIII CE, Herakleopolites); P.Lond. IV 1414,291 and 1415,11 (VIII CE, Aphrodites Kome); SB XXVI 16491,8, as well as 9 and 13 (VIII CE, Antinoites). The Latin forms exungia and axungia appear respectively in T.Vindol. II 182r,16 (104-120 CE) and 190 fr. C,29 (I-II CE).\n\n\n[12] The word \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb(\u03bf)\u03cd\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd is metaphorically named after the \u03ba\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb(\u03bf)\u03cd\u03c1\u03b1, the loaf of bread, cf. e.g. KIND 1921, 1100-6; BATTAGLIA 1989, 88-9; GOUREVITCH 1998, 366; VOINOT 1999, 41; FOURNET 2000, 401-7.\n\n\n[13] For several examples see DIEHL 1964, 230-1.\u00a0 \u00a0\n\n\n[14] Another derivative from \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c9, the compound adjective \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u03cc\u03c2, has a technical meaning in medical vocabulary and defines the \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f74 (\u03c4\u03ad\u03c7\u03bd\u03b7), the \u00abart of making paracentesis\u00bb (cf. LSJ9 1312 s.v.), in Gal. Thras. 24 (V 846,7 K.).\n\n\n[15] Cf. ThGL V 1438B s.v.: \u00abcui pungendi vis inest, pungens, aculeatus\u00bb; LSJ9 939 s.v. \u00abprickly\u00bb.\n\n\n[16] From which LSJRev.Sup. 174 s.v. \u00abengraved\u00bb. Cf. BGU III 781 col. IV,17 (sc. \u03bc\u03ae\u03c3\u03c5\u03bb\u03b1\u03b9) \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1\u03af, \u00abengraved tables\u00bb (see comm. ad l.). Several technical terms of the mosaic art derive from \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c9, e.g. \u03ba\u03ad\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2, \u00abmosaic\u00bb (LSJ9 939 s.v. II) and \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c4\u03ae\u03c2, \u00abmosaic-worker\u00bb (LSJ9 939 s.v.), cf. CHANTRAINE, DELGI 515 s.v. \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c9 3; FRISK, GEWI 821 s.v. \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c9 3; BEEKES, EDG I 672 s.v. \u03ba\u03b5\u03bd\u03c4\u03ad\u03c9 3. See also ROBERT 1958, 49 n. 9 with bibliography.\n\n\n[17] The noun \u03ba\u03ad\u03bd\u03c4\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1 from the same root defines the \u00abpoint\u00bb for example of a weapon, cf. LSJ9 939 s.v.\n\n\n[18] Cf. SCHILBACH 1982, 177: \u00abeinen \u03b3\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd\u03b8\u03bf\u03c2 hoch\u00bb; DGE 846 s.v. Cf. e.g. Hero Geom. IV 11,6 (IV 192,6 Heiberg) and P.Lond. IV 1435,13 (716 CE, Aphrodites Kome) \u1f00\u03c0\u1f78 \u03b3\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4(\u03c9\u03bd) (l. \u03b3\u03c1\u03cc\u03bd\u03b8(\u03c9\u03bd)) \u03b7 \u03ba(\u03b1\u1f76) \u1f04\u03bd\u03c9 \u03b5 (trad. ed.pr. ad l., p. 325: \u00abof 8 palms long and upwards\u00bb).\n\n\n[19] For further discussion on these passages see BONATI 20016 s.v. 1[2].\n\n\n[20] See for example F\u00d6LZER 1906, 27-30.\u00a0 \u00a0\n\n\n[21] On the typologies of the \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1 see especially F\u00d6LZER 1906 and DIEHL 1964, as well as PANOFKA 1829, 8-9; RICHTER-MILNE 1935, 11-2; AMYX 1958, 200-1; SPARKES 1962, 129; VON BOTHMER 1965, 599-608; SPARKES-TALCOTT 1970, 53 e 200-1; FR\u0391NKENSTEIN 1916, 2516-20; POTTIER, DA III\/1 319-21 s.v.; EAA II 501; COOK, GPP 213-4; KIPFER 2000, 246 s.v. \u00a0\n\n\n[22] Cf. AMYX 1958, 201 and SPARKES-TALCOTT 1970, 53 and 200-1 with Pll. 70-1 (no. 1579-96). An examplefrom the Athenian Agora is P 26657, see at http:\/\/www.agathe.gr\/id\/agora\/object\/p%2026657.\u00a0\n\n\n[23] Relevant is the case of the hydriai found in the cemeteries of Hadra and Gabbari in Alexandria, see e.g. EMPEREUR 1998, 159 and 2000, 612-3.\n\n\n[24] On the material features of the hydriain its different functions as these emergefrom the various sources (literary, papyrological, inscriptional and archeological) see BONATI 2016 s.v. 1[1]-[4].\n\n\n[25] See BONATI 2016 s.v. 1[4] and STERN 1999, 29-39.\n\n\n[26] See BONATI 2016 s.v. 3.\n\n\n[27] Some \u1f51\u03b4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03b9 \u1f10\u03c3\u03c6\u03c1\u03b1\u03b3\u03b9\u03c3\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 used for transporting and sending products are mentioned in two documentary papyri, SB X 10559,1 (V CE, ?) and CPR XXV 25,4 (VI-VII CE, Arsinoites or Herakleopolites).\n\n"},{"@type":"D. BIBLIOGRAPHY","@lang":"en","@value":"\nLexicon entries\n\nThGL IX 51B-C s.v.; TLL VI\/2 3133,39-3134,18 s.v.; FORCELLINI, LTL II 691 s.v.; LSJ9 1844 s.v.; CHANTRAINE, DELGII 1152-3 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1; FRISK, GEWII 957-9 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1; BEEKES, EDG II 1526-7 s.v. \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1; BABINIOTIS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 1824 s.v.; DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b XV 7367 s.v.; POTTIER, DA III\/1 319-21 s.v.; HILGERS, LG 60-1 and 196-7 s.v.; PREISIGKE, Wb II\/3 634-5 s.v.\n\u00a0\n\nSecondary literature\n\nF\u00d6LZER 1906; DIEHL 1964; PANOFKA 1829, 8-9; RICHTER-MILNE 1935, 11-2; AMYX 1958, 200-1; SPARKES 1962, 129; VON BOTHMER 1965, 599-608; SPARKES-TALCOTT 1970, 53 and 200-1; FR\u0391NKENSTEIN 1916, 2516-20; COOK, GPP 213-4; KIPFER 2000, 246; EAA II 501; GHIRETTI 2010, 112; BONATI 2016, 157-75 s.v. \u00a0\u00a0\u00a0"},{"@type":"E. DDbDP reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"P.Oxy. LIX 4001,24 as well as 28 and 29-30"},{"@type":"AUTHOR","@lang":"en","@value":"Isabella Bonati"}]}