{"tema_id":"48","string":"\u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7","created":"2014-09-08 17:19:43","code":null,"notes":[{"@type":"variants","@lang":"en","@value":"var. \u2013\nlat. pharmacotheca (modern?)"},{"@type":"GENERAL DEFINITION","@lang":"en","@value":"Semantically transparent compound employed to denote a portable chest or case for the storage of remedies and medical implements. The word, attested from the second or third century CE, has few occurrences: in a papyrus letter from Egypt, and in later astronomical and ecclesiastical literature. The word does not seem to have developed into a genuine terminus technicus and it very likely represented a colloquial term for an object of medical use."},{"@type":"A. LANGUAGE BETWEEN TEXT AND CONTEXT","@lang":"en","@value":"1-2.\u00a0Etymology \u2013 General linguistic commentary\nBoth constituent elements of \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf-\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 participate in a wide range of compounds. \u03c6\u03ac\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03bd is often the first as well as the second component of compound-nouns and adjectives.[1] \u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 (< root of \u03c4\u03af\u03b8\u03b7\u03bc\u03b9 plus a guttural morpheme[2]), denoting something suitable for containing (be it a chest, a cupboard or a room), occurs rarely as the first but is very common as the second member of compounds, in connection with a name indicating the content or the function of the container.[3] Several compounds in -\u03b8\u1f75\u03ba\u03b7 are attested by papyri, particularly in documents of the Roman and Byzantine periods, when the Greek vocabulary reached an extraordinary lexical wealth, especially through the resemantization of existing terms and the formation of new words by suffixation or composition.[4] So, perhaps at the time of its earliest testimony, P.Oslo II 54 (late second-early third century CE), the noun \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 was from a linguistic point of view less rare and strange than its present uniqueness might induce one to believe.\nFinally, \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 is listed in some Medieval and Modern Greek dictionaries with the meaning of \u03ba\u03b9\u03b2\u03ce\u03c4\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd or \u1f11\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd for containing medicines,[5] but it can also denote in a more current use a little box divided into compartments holding, for instance, pills.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\nThere is no trace of the Latin transliteration pharmacotheca in ancient sources, but it seems that the term \u2013 perhaps a reminiscence of the Greek word or a late Latin coinage on the model of the compounds in -theca borrowed from Greek (e.g. bibliotheca, oporotheca, pinacotheca, zotheca) \u2013 was in use in modern times (XVI-XIX centuries) to indicate the \u00abpharmacy\u00bb, the \u201croom\u201d in which drugs and medicines were prepared and sold.[6]\n\u00a0\n3.\u00a0 Abbreviation(s) in the papyri\nNo abbreviated form had appeared, as yet.\n\n\n[1] For the etymology and a list of some compounds, see CHANTRAINE, DELGII 1178 s.v.; FRISK, GEW II 992-3 s.v.; BEEKES, EDG II 15554 s.v.\n\n\n[2] Cf. CHANTRAINE, FN 384.\n\n\n[3] Cf. BR\u00dcMMER 1985, 15: \u00abder Begriff Theke kann gelegentlich zur Bezeichnung von Truhenbeh\u00e4ltern benutzt werden, jedoch geschieht dies nur in Verbindung mit einem vorgesetzten Nomen, das den Inhalt bzw. die Funktion des Beh\u00e4lters definiert\u00bb.\n\n\n[4] Cf. PALMER 1945, 65; DARIS 1995, 78-9; MONTEVECCHI, Pap. 76-9; PRUNETI 1998-9, 149\u00a0; BONATI 2016, 338-40. On Graeco-Latin hybrid compounds, see FILOS 2010, 221-52. On word-composition, see MAYSER, GGP I\/3 153-77.\n\n\n[5] Cf. e.g. DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b XV 7573 e \u039d\u039b 1397 s.v.; STAMATAKOS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 III 2829 s.v. \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b4\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7.\n\n\n[6] An example is the following inscription painted above a door of the old pharmacy of St. John the Evangelist in Parma: \u00abaditus ad pharmacothecam iuvandis aegris ex medicorum praescritione dicatam\u00bb.\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n"},{"@type":"B. TESTIMONIA - A selection of representative sources","@lang":"en","@value":"1.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 P.Oslo II 54,5-9 \u2013 II\/III CE\n\u03c0\u0323\u03ad\u03bc\u03c8\u03bf\u0323\u03bd\u0323 |\u03bc\u0323\u03bf\u0323\u03b9\u0323 \u03c4\u1f74\u0323\u03bd\u0323 \u03c6\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u03c1\u0323\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u0323\u03bd\u0323 | \u03b1\u1f30\u03c4\u03ae\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2\u0323\u0323 \u03c0[\u03b1\u03c1]\u1f70 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u1fe6 | \u03c6\u03ac\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u0323\u03bd\u0323 \u03b4\u03b1\u03ba\u03bd\u03b7\u03c1\u1f78\u03bd | \u03ba\u03b1\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u1f15\u0323\u03c4\u03b5\u0323\u03c1\u03bf\u0323\u03bd \u1f21\u0323\u03b4\u03cd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd.\nSend me the medicine-chest and ask the doctor for a type of biting remedy and another much milder one.[1]\n\u00a0\n2.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 (Palchus?) Cat.Cod.Astr. I 104,26-30 Olivieri \u2013 V CE\n\u03b5\u1f30\u03c3\u03b5\u03bb\u03b8\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f45\u03c1\u03bc\u03bf\u03bd, \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b2\u03b1\u03bb\u03cc\u03bd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03b3\u03cc\u03bc\u03bf\u03bd \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd \u03c0\u03bb\u03bf\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd, \u1f45\u03c4\u03bf\u03c5 \u1f27\u03bb\u03b8\u03bf\u03bd \u03c6\u03ad\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c2 \u03bc\u03b5\u03b8\u2019 \u1f11\u03b1\u03c5\u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd, \u03c3\u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5\u03b8\u03af\u03b1 \u03b4\u1fc6\u03c4\u03b1 \u03c0\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03c9\u03c4\u1f70 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c7\u03ac\u03c1\u03c4\u03b7\u03bd \u03bb\u03b9\u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u2018\u0395\u03c1\u03bc\u1fc6\u03bd \u1f00\u03c6\u03b1\u03b9\u03c1\u03b5\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03bd \u03b5\u1f36\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03cd\u03b7 \u03bc\u03b1\u03b3\u03b5\u03b9\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1f70 \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03a3\u03ba\u03cc\u03c1\u03c0\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03bb\u03b7\u03c1\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u02bc\u0391\u03c3\u03ba\u03bb\u03b7\u03c0\u03b9\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u02bd\u03a5\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\nEntering a harbour they reloaded the freight, which they had brought with them, onto another ship, i.e. winged sparrows and coarse papyrus on account of Hermes being retrograde, and the cooking equipment on account of the rise of Scorpio and a medicine-chest full of content on account of the rise of Asclepius and Hygeia.\n\u00a0\n3.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Proclus, Oratio XVIII in laudem apostoli Pauli (PG LXV 817D-820A Migne) \u2013 V CE\n\u03c0\u03ac\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1 \u03b2\u03bb\u03ad\u03c0\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03a0\u03b1\u03cd\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c4\u03bf\u1f7a\u03c2 \u1f04\u03b8\u03bb\u03bf\u03c5\u03c2\u00b7 [\u2026] \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f00\u03b8\u03bb\u03b7\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u03ac\u03c2 \u03c0\u03ac\u03bb\u03b1\u03c2\u00b7 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c0\u03cd\u03ba\u03c4\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c4\u1f70 \u03c3\u03c4\u03af\u03b3\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1 [\u2026] \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd.\nThe entire universe watches Paul\u2019s achievements: [\u2026] the athlete\u2019s wrestling, the boxer\u2019s marks [\u2026], the physician\u2019s case [...]. \u00a0\n\u00a0\n4.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 [Hesychius ?], Homilia XXI in sanctum Lucam 5,8-9 (942,4 Aubineau)\u00a0 \u2013 V CE\n\u03b8\u03ad\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f30\u03b4\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd; \u03b2\u03bb\u03ad\u03c0\u03b5 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c7\u03b5\u03b9\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5\u03c1\u03b3\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f30\u03bf\u03c5\u03b4\u03b1\u03ca\u03ba\u1ff6\u03bd \u03b3\u03bb\u03c9\u03c3\u03c3\u1ff6\u03bd.\nDo you want to see his doctor\u2019s case? Behold (his) surgery of Jewish tongues.\n\u00a0\n5.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Sophronius, Narratio miracolorum sanctorum Cyri et Joannis 10,56-7 \u2013 VI-VII CE\n\u1f61\u03c2 \u03bf\u1f36\u03bc\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b3\u1f70\u03c1 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f00\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 \u03bc\u03b5\u03b9\u03b6\u03cc\u03bd\u03c9\u03bd \u03bd\u03bf\u03c3\u03b7\u03bc\u03ac\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd \u1f10\u03c4\u03cd\u03b3\u03c7\u03b1\u03bd\u03b5\u03bd.\nThe cupboard was, I believe, a medicine-chest for more serious diseases.\n\u00a0\n6.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Neophytus, \u03a0\u03b1\u03bd\u03b7\u03b3\u03c5\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1f74 \u03b2\u03af\u03b2\u03bb\u03bf\u03c2 \u2013 XII-XIII CE\nII 5-6 \u1f41 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u1f14\u03c7\u03c9\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03af\u03c9\u03bd \u1f61\u03c2 \u1f00\u03bb\u03b7\u03b8\u1ff6\u03c2.\n... who [sc. St. Mamas] owns the divine medicine-case with truly divine remedies.\n\u00a0\nIII 234-6 \u1f61\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03c3\u03bf\u03c5 \u1f00\u03ba\u03b5\u03c3\u03c9\u03b4\u03cd\u03bd\u03c9\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u03b1\u03c0\u03b1\u03bd\u03c4\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f51\u03c0\u03b5\u03c1\u03b3\u03ad\u03bc\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b1\u03bd\n... your [sc. of archangel Michael] divine medicine-case being always full of remedies to allay pain.\n\u00a0\nXII 3 \u03bf\u1f57 \u1f21 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03c0\u03bb\u03ae\u03c1\u03b7\u03c2 \u1f10\u03ba \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u1f04\u03bd\u03c9\u03b8\u03b5\u03bd \u03c7\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2.\n... whose [sc. of Theosebius] medicine-chest is full of remedies derived from the divine Grace.\n\u00a0\nXVIII 38-40 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03c6\u03ad\u03c1\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03bb\u03b7\u03c1\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03bf\u03c0\u03c1\u03b5\u03c0\u1ff6\u03bd.\n... you [sc. the glory of St. Cosmas and Damianos] carry the medicine-chest full of divine remedies.\n\u00a0\nXXVI 1081-3 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u1f14\u03c7\u03c9\u03bd \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03bb\u03b7\u03c1\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03bd \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03b8\u03b5\u03bf\u03c0\u03c1\u03b5\u03c0\u1ff6\u03bd.\n... whose [sc. St. Nicholas] has the medicine-chest full of divine remedies.\n\n\n[1] Italian translation in ANDORLINI-MARCONE 2004, 190-1; German translation in J\u00d6RDENS 2010, 346.\n\n"},{"@type":"C. COMMENTARY","@lang":"en","@value":"1.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 and its sources\nThe earliest witness for the noun, P.Oslo II 54,6 ([1]), is a private letter on papyrus from Egypt, the handwriting of which dates it sometime in the second half of the second or the first half of the third century CE. The letter, the exact provenance of which is unknown (but likely coming from the Oxyrhynchos area), is addressed by certain Horeion to his father, Apollonios. Horeion is sending by letter 908 silver drachmae, asking his father to send him the (obviously portable) medicine-chest (\u03c0\u0323\u03ad\u03bc\u03c8\u03bf\u0323\u03bd\u0323| \u03bc\u0323\u03bf\u0323\u03b9\u0323 \u03c4\u1f74\u0323\u03bd\u0323 \u03c6\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u03c1\u0323\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u0323\u03bd\u0323) and two remedies of opposite qualities (\u03c6\u03ac\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u0323\u03bd\u0323 \u03b4\u03b1\u03ba\u03bd\u03b7\u03c1\u1f78\u03bd| \u03ba\u03b1\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u1f15\u0323\u03c4\u03b5\u0323\u03c1\u03bf\u0323\u03bd \u1f21\u0323\u03b4\u03cd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd)[1].\nThe next two witnesses take us to the fifth century. The word occurs in Cat.Cod.Astr. I 104,29 Olivieri ([2]) in a \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c1\u03c7\u03ae, a forecast concerning an undertaking datable to ca. 480 CE. The text contains a series of astrological predictions concerning a sea-voyage. In this forecast, attributed to the fifth cent. astrologer Palchus, the position of stars and constellations (conveyed by a prepositional construction with \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 + accusative) determines the artefacts to be taken on board for a sea voyage. A \u2018full\u2019, \u2018well-equipped\u2019 first-aid kit forms part of the freight, its inclusion associated with the rise of the constellations Asclepius and Hygeia (\u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7\u03bd \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03bb\u03b7\u03c1\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03bd \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u02bc\u0391\u03c3\u03ba\u03bb\u03b7\u03c0\u03b9\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u02bd\u03a5\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd). Earlier the observation of Asclepius, i.e the constellation Ophiuchus, rising beside Selene, the moon, makes the astrologist advise that medical equipment should be had on board (ll.21-2 \u1f11\u03c9\u03c1\u03b1\u03ba\u1f7c\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u1f45\u03c4\u03b9 \u03c4\u1fc7 \u03a3\u03b5\u03bb\u03ae\u03bd\u1fc3 \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03bd\u03b1\u03c4\u03ad\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9 \u1f41 \u1fbf\u0391\u03c3\u03ba\u03bb\u03b7\u03c0\u03b9\u1f78\u03c2, \u03b5\u1f36\u03c0\u03bf\u03bd \u1f45\u03c4\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1f70 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03cd\u03b7 \u03c6\u03ad\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b9 \u03bc\u03b5\u03b8\u2019 \u1f11\u03b1\u03c5\u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd). It appears likely that \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 forms part of the \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1f70 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03cd\u03b7.\nThe term occurs otherwise exclusively in works of Christian authorship, employed chiefly in a figurative sense. In the encomiastic sermon In laudem apostoli Pauli 1 (Hom. XVIII) Proclus consecrated Archbishop of Constantinople in 434 CE, compiles a long list of things to which St. Paul\u2019s certamina may metaphorically be compared, one among which is \u201cthe physician\u2019s medicine-case\u201d (PG transl.: medici medicamentorum narthecium) ([3]). The term is probably used here because of its etymological transparency.\nIn another homiletic text dating from approximately the same period, the apocryphal In sanctum Lucam ([4]) ascribed in some of the manuscripts (BKLS) to the presbyter and exegete Hesychius of Jerusalem but probably written later,[2] St. Luke is presented as an itinerant doctor sent to heal the morally ailing humanity. The evangelist, a physician described by St. Paul as \u1f41 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f41 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b1\u03c0\u03b7\u03c4\u03cc\u03c2 (the \u00abbeloved doctor\u00bb, Cl. 4,14), is here presented as a \u03c8\u03c5\u03c7\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03cc\u03c2 (\u00aba physician of the soul\u00bb) in metaphorical possession of a \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7. The case seems to be used for the storage and transport of surgical tools, as it is connected with the surgery practised symbolically on the tongues of the Jews, i.e. on the doctrines of Judaism.\nIn [5], a passage from the Narratio miracolorum sanctorum Cyri et Joannis by St. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (560-638 CE), the scene is set in Alexandria in the church of St. Cyrus and St. John. A woman, who has resorted there desperate to find a cure for her daughter suffering terrible pains at teething, dreams of meeting St. Cyrus in the guise of a monk. He orders her to search the place and drip whatever ingredient she may chance upon into the girl\u2019s ears. She looks around, discovers a small niche (\u03b8\u03c5\u03c1\u03af\u03b4\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u03ac\u03bd) \u2013 literally a \u2018window\u2019 \u2013 with a cup of honey which she uses as instructed, and her daughter is then healed. The niche is described as \u1f00\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd, a \u201ccupboard\u201d used as \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, a storage-space for medicines.\nFinally, the compound occurs five times in as many panegyrics of the \u03a0\u03b1\u03bd\u03b7\u03b3\u03c5\u03c1\u03b9\u03ba\u1f74 \u03b2\u03af\u03b2\u03bb\u03bf\u03c2 ([6]) by the hermit and Byzantine writer from Cyprus Neophytus \u1f41 \u1fce\u0395\u03b3\u03ba\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 (1134-1220 ca.). The saints \u2013 or the personified concepts \u2013 praised are presented according to the model of the \u03c0\u03bd\u03b5\u03c5\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f30\u03b1\u03c4\u03c1\u03cc\u03c2, the \u00abspiritual physician\u00bb: like in the previous cases, each of them is equipped with a \u03b8\u03b5\u1fd6\u03b1 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 containing divine remedies. Having lost the connection with the actual object, the word seems to be employed to achieve a rhetorical effect, producing a figura etymologica in juxtaposition with \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd.\nThe noun \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 appears to denote the professional\u2019s medicine-case, although admittedly always in figurative contexts, i.e. always in metaphorical connection with physicians. In most cases the chest contains remedies, exceptions being [4] where its implicit content consists of surgical tools and [3], involving both remedies (PG LXV 817C.8) and surgery (PG LXV 820A.7). However, the absence of the term from medical texts is significant. It might suggest that, even if the compound \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 indicates an exclusively medical container, it never entered the technical vocabulary of the discipline. It probably served as early as the time of the Oslo papyrus as a lay synonym for the physician\u2019s tool-case[3] in common language, e.g. in practitioners\u2019 everyday conversations with their patients, instead of more official and technical terms for similar objects, used among professionals. It may thus be considered as a medical term in so far as it refers to a technical accessory, but not a genuine terminus technicus.\n\u00a0\n2.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 word and object\nThe extant written sources do not provide information illuminating the material side of the object. The presence of -\u03b8\u1f75\u03ba\u03b7 in the second part of the compound does not add any information either, since compounds in -\u03b8\u1f75\u03ba\u03b7 denoted both small containers (e.g. \u03bc\u03c5\u03c1\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, a \u00abreceptacle for unguents\u00bb, \u03bc\u03c5\u03c3\u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, literally a \u00abspoon-box\u00bb, and \u03bb\u03b9\u03b2\u03b1\u03bd\u03bf\u03b8\u1f75\u03ba\u03b7, an \u00abincense-case\u00bb) and bigger ones, like cupboards or chests (e.g. \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03c5\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, a chest suitable for all kinds of \u00abequipment\u00bb), as well as containers lato sensu, like rooms or closed spaces (e.g. \u1f00\u03c0\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, the \u00abmagazine\u00bb, \u03c7\u03bf\u03c1\u03c4\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, the \u00abbarn\u00bb).\nThe general impression is that the \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 is a portable case. An exception is represented by the passage by St. Sophronius ([5]) where the \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 is described as \u1f00\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (< Lat. armarium), term denoting an object variable in size and shape according to its content, e.g. books, money, weapons, clothes etc.[4] So, taking into account that the \u03b8\u03c5\u03c1\u03af\u03b4\u03b5\u03c2 were \u2018windows\u2019 built in the walls of churches and monasteries, the \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 of [5] may be not portable but a fixed built-in-cupboard used as storage space for remedies. In this respect it differs from all the others and the compound is probably used in a broader sense. This context could be interpreted as a \u201cprecursor\u201d of the modern Greek word \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03c0\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7, a \u00abstorage room for medicines\u00bb[5].\u00a0\u00a0Despite the objective difficulty of connecting verba and Realien, as objects usually come without words and words without objects, archaeological evidence may provide a starting point for forming a hypothesis about the physical appearance of \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7.\nA considerable number of cases for storage and transport of drugs and medicines and\/or surgical instruments have been uncovered in excavations, sometimes with residues of the medicinal contents inside. Although subject to deterioration, these traces \u2013 as a rule powders or pills \u2013 have been successfully identified by scientific analysis on more than one occasion,[6] often confirming what we know from medical writers.\nA characteristic type of case is rectangular in shape (on average 12 x 6-7 x 2-3 cm), equipped with a sliding outer lid and divided into several internal compartments, each with its own hinged cover in order to store together different medical substances without risking their contamination. So, if it is at all possible to assume a terminological and typological superposition between the \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u1fc6\u03ba\u03b1\u03b9 mentioned in the sources and any of the archaeological bo\u00eetes m\u00e9dicales, we may perhaps hypothesize that the compartmentalized rectangular type with sliding lid was the most suitable shape for the domestic pharmacy chest, associating the almost intuitive term \u2013 literally a case for medicines \u2013 with the most common type of container with that function in professional and non-professional contexts. Archaeological evidence has provided several specimina dating back to the Roman period, therefore contemporary with P.Oslo II 54. Often very well preserved, some of these surely derive from a professional context, but their household counterpart was in all likelihood analogous to them.\nSome characteristic examples follow below:[7]\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \n\u00a0\nThis rectangular copper alloy box (11x 6.4 x 2.1 cm), no. 296 in BLIQUEZ 1994, 69 and 191 (ills. 189-90), was recovered in the Casa del Medico dei Gladiatori in Pompeii (V 5, 1.2). It has a sliding lid held in place by a catch, four compartments inside, each covered by a little lid with a handle (one is lost). Each compartment still preserved residues of grayish pills \u00abshaped like the eraser on a pencil\u00bb. Several other similar boxes were preserved in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples but are now missing.[8] \u00a0Of the three specimensreproduced below,[9] two are equipped with a handle for carrying them around:[10]\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0\nNational Archaeological Museum, photo no. C844 of 1926.\n\u00a0\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \nDetails of a photo of the Victor Deneffe collection in Museum Wetenschap en Techniek, Ghent.\n\u00a0\nAnother interesting specimen (I-III CE) is described in K\u00dcNZL 1996, Abb. XXXIV. It was extracted \u00abaus einem gro\u00dfen Sammelfund aus Kleinasien\u00bb and it is now preserved in the Deutsches Klingenmuseum of Solingen (inv. 65.8). The case is internally compartmentalized. Two of these compartments has hinged lid with handle (one lost), whereas the open central one contains a glass ampulla with traces of substances. Material residues have survived also in the right one. These contents have been analyzed and it has been discovered that they were lead carbonate (PbCO3), i.e. \u03c8\u03b9\u03bc\u03cd\u03b8\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd or cerussa, a mineral drug widely attested in the ancient pharmacopoeias and in the medical papyri, as it was used especially during the preparation of remedies for external application, such as ointments and salves.[11] On the other side, the widespread use of this substance also for the preparation of cosmetics, especially pigments to whiten the skin of the face, as well as the diffusion of similar ampullae in that field, raises the possibility that the use of the chest was in connection with cosmetics.\n\u00a0\n\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \nNoteworthy is the sophisticated pharmacy case (11 x 7.5 x 3 cm) of the late third or early fourth century described in REBER 1909-1910, 369-75. This pharmacie de poche was found, covered with dust and forgotten in a corner of the archive room, in the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Val\u00e8re in Sion (Switzerland). Probably sent from Rome to the local bishop \u00aben guise de cadeau\u00bb, it was reused as a reliquary. At the time of its discovery it still contained relics wrapped in silk. The chest, constructed from a single piece of ivory, was divided into eleven compartments of variable size. The dimensions of the compartments lead to suppose that they were intended to store small medicines (pastilli)or dried sticks in the longest central one. The sliding lid is engraved in high-relief with a depiction of Asclepius \u2013 gripping the snake-entwined staff in the left hand and perhaps a bunch of medicinal herbs in the other one \u2013 and Hygeia, gods of medicine and health.[12] The cross engraved between the heads of the divinities seems to belong to the time of the reuse, marking out the process of resacralization from the pagan to the Christian religion. The connection between this pharmacy box and the image of Asclepius and Hygeia reminds us of the \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03b8\u03ae\u03ba\u03b7 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c0\u03bb\u03b7\u03c1\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7 suggested by the astral interpretation of the two gods in the \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c1\u03c7\u03ae of the Catalogus Codicum Astrologoruum (I 104,29 Olivieri) [2].\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0\n\u00a0\nAn extraordinary archaeological finding provides elements for a further exemplar of ancient physician\u2019s bag: the so-called Pozzino shipwreck dating back to about 140-130 BCE. The shipwreck, discovered in 1974, sank off the coast of Tuscany (Italy), near the Etruscan city of Populonia, and was excavated between 1989 and 1990. The excavations yielded many remarkable artifacts. Among them several medical implements and containers were discovered, such as many wooden vials equipped with their covers and numerous tin pyxides (see s.v. \u03c0\u03c5\u03be\u03af\u03c2 C 2). They were probably the personal equipment of a physician traveling by sea. Interestingly, these objects were found in close proximity to an iron lock from a wooden chest that had been completely destroyed. This seems to suggest that the medical items were probably the contents of the chest and that the chest itself was the medical bag of the physician traveling on the ship (see GIACHI et al. 2013, 1193).\n\u00a0\n\n\n\n[1] For a discussion of the papyrus and its vocabulary, see BONATI 2016b, 659-75.\n\n\n[2] Cf. AUBINEAU 1980, 619-20 and 902-35.\n\n\n[3] Defining some features of the technical language SCHIRONI 2010, 338 states: \u00abseldom used \u2013 though possibly understood \u2013 by the non-specialist. For this reason, technical terms often have lay synonyms in common language; this is particular evident in medicine where technical and lay terminology coexist [...] and often physicians use the latter in order to be understood by the patients\u00bb.\n\n\n[4] It is said variarum rerum receptaculum, cf. TLL II 603,46-604,27 s.v. and HOFMANN, LG 32 s.v. The word is also attested in an ostrakon of the II-III cent. CE containing a list of household items, P.Brook. 84,10 (= SB I 4292,10).\n\n\n[5] Cf. DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b XV 7571 s.v.; BABINIOTIS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 1870 s.v.\n\n\n[6] On this subject, see some bibliographical references in MARGANNE 2004b, 118.\n\n\n[7] See also, for instance, the wooden chest of a Coptic physician found in Hermonthis, described by DARESSY 1909-10, 254-7 with Pl. I e II. Other examples in JACKSON 1998, 74-5 with ill. 18 and REBER 1909-1910, 372-3.\n\n\n[8] Bibliographical references and descriptions in BLIQUEZ 1994, 2 (F) and 66 (m).\n\n\n[9] Cf. DENEFFE 1893, 37-8 with Pl. 2, ills. 1 and 6 as well as MILNE 1907, 172-3 with Pl. LIV.\n\n\n[10] Reproductions of the complete photos in BLIQUEZ 1994, Pl. XXIV and XXV, ill. 1. More uncertain is the use of case no. 297 in BLIQUEZ 1994, 69 and 191 (ills.191-2), found at Pompeii in a non-medical context, the House of M. Memmius Auctus (VI 14, 27). It is a rectangular box of copper alloy (7.7 x 5.5 cm) with a sliding lid surmounted on one side with a decorative cornice and having a round opening on the side with the catch which holds the lid in place. It is not compartmentalized and does not contain traces of drugs or medicines. It is probable that it had nothing to do with the medical field and that it was destined to other kind of products like cosmetics or coins and jewels.\n\n\n[11] Cf. GAZZA 1956, 105.\n\n\n[12] Occasionally, images of Asclepius with the snake, which is attribute and symbol of the healing power of the god, or of Asclepius and Hygeia are figured on surgical or pharmaceutical items, as well as on lids of boxes like in this case, cf. BLIQUEZ 1994, 67 and 102.\n\n"},{"@type":"D. BIBLIOGRAPHY","@lang":"en","@value":"1. Lexicon entries\nLSJ9 1917 s.v.; DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b XV 7573 and \u039d\u039b 1397 s.v.; STAMATAKOS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 III 2829 s.v.\n\u00a0\n2. Secondary literature \nGHIRETTI 2010, 113-4 and 202; BONATI 2016, 185-95\u00a0s.v. and 2016b, 663-7."},{"@type":"E. DDbDP reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"P.Oslo II 54,6"},{"@type":"AUTHOR","@lang":"en","@value":"Isabella Bonati"}]}