{"tema_id":"177","string":"Declaration of death","created":"2016-07-04 01:11:32","code":null,"notes":[{"@type":"variants","@lang":"en","@value":"Gr. \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03bc\u03bd\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c1\u1f76 \u03c4\u03b5\u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u03b7\u03ba\u03cc\u03c4\u03bf\u03f2 or \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03bc\u03bd\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1 \u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u1fc6\u03f2 (?)"},{"@type":"GENERAL DEFINITION","@lang":"en","@value":"The declaration of death is a notification (hypomnema, literally \u201cmemorial\u201d[1]) issued by an individual to inform the authorities of the decease of one or more relatives (or slaves) of his [2]. Though such documents do not belong properly to the corpus of the Greek medical papyri, death is a health condition, and they help conveying the view that in Graeco-Roman Egypt death was (also) a matter of bureaucracy, with a lot of paperwork produced around that. They also provide an interesting comparandum with regard to the petitions requesting official inspections in case of death[3]. Therefore, they deserve a mention among the documentary papyri dealing with medical topics.\n\n\n[1] Cf. Bickermann 1930, 35 ff.; Ellart 2009, 236; see below.\n\n\n[2] Cf. Wallace 1938, 106; Wilcken 1912, 196; Grassi 1922, 208-11; Montevecchi 1946; Mertens 1958, 65-77; Casarico 1985; Scheidel 1999; Kruse 2002, I, 139-68.\n\n\n[3] See Medicalia Online s.v. Medical report. The two typologies had different immediate purposes (cf. Heinen 2006, part. 196-8), but the context of both was the same: death as a public fact. This lemma is a result of a paper titled Official Deaths: Death Notifications and Medical Reports in the Greek Papyri from Egypt, which I presented at the international conference \u201c\u2018In the Midst of Life we are in Death\u2019: Death, Burial and the Afterlife in the Arts and Humanities\u201d held at the University College Dublin on June 24, 2016. That paper as well as this lemma have been redacted also in connection with the Project \u201cSynopsis. Data Processing and State Management in Roman Egypt (30 BCE-300 CE)\u201d conducted by Prof. Dr. Andrea J\u00f6rdens (Ruprecht-Karls-Universit\u00e4t Heidelberg) and Prof. Uri Yiftach-Firanko (Tel Aviv University) under a grant of the German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (G-38-111.4\/2011). I refer to Yiftach-Reggiani 2017 and Reggiani 2018 for further reference and bibliography on the topic.\n\n"},{"@type":"A. LANGUAGE BETWEEN TEXT AND CONTEXT","@lang":"en","@value":"The language employed in the declarations of death is strictly connected to their entirely administrative background, namely related to the capitation tax (laographia) that every non-Roman inhabitant of Egypt had to pay yearly.\nFirst of all, the deceased is almost always declared along with a clear indication of his tax status and legal residence. It is stated if he was a full payer of the poll tax (telon, teleios); a fully exempted person, for age limits (see below) or other reasons (apolysimos \u201creleased\u201d, en te atelia \u201cin the state of being not liable\u201d); a member of tax-relevant professional guilds (e.g. gerdios \u201cweaver\u201d; hierotekton \u201csacred architect\u201d; ktenistes \u201chairdresser\u201d, eriopoles \u201cwool seller\u201d) or other special categories (atechnos \u201cunemployed\u201d, hiereus \u201cpriest\u201d, dodekadrachmos apo gymnasiou); or finally a laographoumenos (term of controversial meaning, likely pointing to someone in the process of being registered for the payment of the poll tax).\nEven all the personal data are tax-oriented. Neither the age nor the exact date of death are recorded[1]. The former, which acts as a relevant personal identifier in almost all the official and legal documents on papyrus, made its entrance only when the age limits of tax liability were questioned. If one was less than 14 years old, then he fell into the class of the underage (aphelikes), if more than 60 into the overage (hypereteis), both of them totally exempted from the laographia. From this standpoint, it is of the utmost interest the declaration D91, where the dead is recorded as prosbas eis tessareskaidekaeteis, \u201ccome into the (category of the) 14-year-olds\u201d. It is one of the only two exact statement of age in such documents, and its purpose is clear.\nAs regards the date of death, the preference is clearly accorded to the recording of the month rather than the exact day, which appears only three times. This fact has been interpreted since a long time with the inherited tax obligations of the deceased\u2019s heirs: U. Wilcken, first, suggested that if one passed away within the first half of the year, the heirs had to pay any residual instalments left over by the deceased up to the sixth month (Mecheir) only, otherwise they had to pay any possible arrears up to the end of the year, and this idea has been shared by almost all the scholars[2]. Recently, W. Scheidel has challenged this theory after analysing the seasonal trend of death declarations, and advanced some alternative options, one of which keeps the Mecheir-deadline but refers it to a full 12-month year instead of a half 6-month year[3]. Much of these speculations rely on data that are poorly relevant from the statistical viewpoint: but striking are the statements that we can find in D84 and D95, that the deceased(s) had died \u201chaving paid everything for his tax dues\u201d and \u201cpaid the due taxes up to now\u201d \u2013 i.e. no claims are to be expected by the heirs who submitted the declarations[4] (see also below for further evidence).\n\n\n[1] These indications are instead recorded on different types of documents related to death, such as mummy labels: cf. Boyaval 1981. However, this is not a regular habit (cf. also Youtie 1976, 631).\n\n\n[2] Wilcken 1912, 196; Westermann-Keyes 1932, p. 82; Wallace 1938, 124-5; Casarico 1985, 17; P.Petaus 9, note ad l. 17; Kruse 2002, I, 139-41. For some observations on death and tax liabilities, cf. also Meerson 2010, 546-8. The idea that law forced the heirs to pay for any residual dues left over by the deceased fits the likely principle that the heir was responsible for the debts of the deceased (Taubenschlag 1955, 218-9).\n\n\n[3] Scheidel 1999, passim.\n\n\n[4] One of the main counter-arguments advanced by Scheidel 1999, that \u201cabout a quarter of all known texts report the death of individuals who were not liable to pay poll tax\u201d (p. 63), might be explained, as already Mertens 1958, 131 thought, with the fact that it was important to declare the privileged or exempted status of the deceased in order to avoid undue exactions.\n\n"},{"@type":"C. COMMENTARY","@lang":"en","@value":"1. The text typology: name, occurrences, evidence.\nThere is no certain attestation of the official name of the declaration of death, but we may infer that it was something close to the terms \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03bc(\u03bd\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1) \u03c0\u0323\u03b5\u0323\u03c1\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u03c4\u03b5\u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u03b7\u03ba(\u03cc\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2) and \u1f51\u03c0\u03cc\u03bc(\u03bd\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1) \u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4(\u1fc6\u03c2) that were inscribed on the verso of D16 and D52. See also the many recordings \u1f10\u03be \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03bc(\u03bd\u03ae\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2) that are listed in P.Lond. II 259, passim, in the section devoted to the register of the dead (see below), meaning that the information was extracted from the declarations of death.\nThe evidence currently amounts to 106 pieces, dated from the 1st to the early 4th century AD (the earliest to AD 2\/3, the latest to 311), coming mostly from the Arsinoites and the Oxyrhynchites (but documents from other nomoi are attested). The practice is clearly Roman, being connected with the census operations and the population control[1]. The pieces of evidence of archival and bureaucratic procedures are described below[2]\n.\nA special case is represented by a couple of documents that we can define as \u201cnotices of death\u201d (N1 & N2 in the final table, below), since they aim at communicating the death of a person as well, but don\u2019t follow the usual procedure.\u00a0 N1 is a paper issued by the keepers of the logisterion (the public accounting office) of Oxyrhynchus, by which they communicate to the strategos that a tax farmer died after having got ill while he was in prison, \u201cso that the fact is made manifest and no further inquiries will be necessary\u201d. Slight differences from the usual declarations of death are for example the lack of indication of the tax status of the deceased and the recording of the exact date of death; the document cannot even be considered as an official request for medical inspection[3] since it is clearly stated that it was submitted in order to avoid later inspections (\u03bc\u03ae \u03c0\u03c9\u03c2 \u1f55\u03c3\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03b6\u0323[\u03b7]|\u03c4\u03b7\u03b8\u1fc7, ll. 24-5). Probably, in the case that someone\u2019s death was attested and certified by some public officers, no special inquests were needed (it might therefore represent a particular case of exetasis: see below); or maybe this kind of notice would lead to the simple intervention of the komogrammateus for the administrative certification of the fact (see below as well). At any rate, the case looks similar to that of N2. This document, unfortunately fragmentary, is the final part of the report of the death of a shepherd, occurred while he was pasturing his flock. The writer, Aurelius Sakaon, who in those years acted as a tax official (sitologos) in his village[4], declares that he was unable to ascertain the cause of death, and that he is reporting such so that the addressee (the strategos?) takes cognizance of the fact. The terminology used in this fragment is of the utmost interest. Sakaon says that he was unable to move the corpse and to perform an inspection (\u03bc\u1f74 \u03b4\u03c5\u03bd\u03cc\u03bc\u03b5|\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 \u03bf\u1f50 \u1fe5\u0323\u1fb3\u03b4\u03af\u03c9\u03c2 \u03ba\u03bf\u03bc\u03af\u03c3\u0323\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03c3\u1ff6\u03bc\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b7\u03b4\u1f72 | \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03b8\u03b5\u03c9\u03c1\u1fc6\u03c3\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03b8\u03ac\u03bd\u03b1\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd, ll. 2-4; the verb epitheoreo is the same used in the medical reports[5]), and that therefore he ignores how he passed away (\u1f00\u03b3\u03bd\u03c9|\u1ff6\u03bd \u03c0\u1ff6\u03c2 \u1f10\u0323\u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03cd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c3\u03b5\u03bd\u0323, ll. 4-5) \u1f04\u03bd\u03b5\u03c5 \u1f00\u03c3\u03c6\u03b1\u03bb\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 (l. 5), \u201cwithout an official certification\u201d, which probably refers to the lack of an official report stating the cause of death[6]. Then, in the submission clause, he states that he is issuing the petition \u1f00\u03c3\u03c6\u03b1|\u03bb\u03b9\u03b6\u03cc\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u0323\u03c2\u0323 \u03c0\u03b5\u03c1\u1f76 \u03c4\u03bf\u03cd[\u03c4]\u03bf\u03c5 (ll. 6-7), a formulaic clause that usually indicates the remission of responsibility through an official declaration[7]. We cannot be sure of what is going on here, but certainly the document does not request any medical inspection \u2013 perhaps in this case too the official position of the writer was enough to certificate the death?\n\u00a0\n2. Administrative framework and (non-)medical practice.\nThe document was addressed at the same time to the basilikos grammateus (the royal scribe, secretary of the strategos, the head of each nomos or region of Egypt) and, in copy, to the komogrammateus (the secretary of the village, keeper of the local archives and registers) or similar officers (the grammateus poleos in the big city of Oxyrhynchus, the grammateus metropoleos in Ptolemais Euergetis, capital of the Arsinoites). A couple of declarations are preserved in two copies, each addressed to one of the two officials (D6 and D74). We have some cases of declarations addressed to special tax officials[8], but it is not clear whether they were intended to replace the komogrammateus or to receive just an additional copy for reference.\nIn a group of declarations addressed to the basilikos grammateus we find an annotation by which he ordered to the komogrammateus (vel sim.) to conduct an enquiry (exetasis) into the declared death and to provide a signed report (D8; D26-27; D30; D38-39; D41; D42-43; D56; D59?; D67; D74-78; D79; D85-86; D95)[9]. This means that at least one copy of the document was forwarded between the local offices in order to check the situation. We are not informed about this procedure of exetasis (see above for some further considerations): apparently, none of such documents is preserved. We can infer that the inspection was by no means similar to that performed by the public doctors together with the collaborator of the strategos, which was aimed at producing a legal certification of the diathesis (conditions) of the corpse (in case of death) or of the injured (in case of wounds)[10]. The komogrammateus indeed was asked just to ascertain that the deceased was really dead: no special medical competences were required. We may wonder whether it was enough, for him, to put an official subscription to state that he had received the notice, as we possess some instances of the latter coming along with the specification achri exetaseos (D3; D45; D52-53; D64; D71; D73; D80; D88; D92). Since there is no overlap with the documentation bearing the order of the b.g., it seems likely that the k.g. signed his own copy, not the one forwarded to him by the higher official. We simply do not know whether he actually sent the former to his superior.\nThe original declarations were kept at the public archives, as shown by the progressive numbers added to some of the extant examples, which point to the practice of keeping official documents glued in rolls (tomoi synkollesimoi) where each leaf (kollema) was numbered for cross-references (D14; D29?; D38+39; D58+59; D60+61; D97; D99+100; D101]). At the offices, the collected data were used to update the population and census registers (see below), as is attested by the occurrence of a phrase indicating the official recording of the data (\u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03ba\u03b5\u03c7\u03ce\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9-clause in D2; D29; D31; D46; D57; D65; D72; D99-100?), but authenticated copies must have been issued to the declarers themselves, as might be shown by the official signature added by the local officials to some of the extant documents (D17; D19; D21; D22; D23; D28; D46 \u2013 and see D3 where an official subscription is explicitly required by the declarant).\n\u00a0\n3. Purposes of the declarations of death.\nThe first aim of the declarations of death was to request that the name of the deceased be added to a special register called the \u201clist of the dead\u201d (taxis teteleutekoton) and, at the same time, cancelled from the official tax registers, which recorded the payments due year by year[11]. The administrative practice of updating population and tax registers with the information about dead persons is shown by several examples. P.Oxy. 24.2412 (Herakleopolites, 28\/9 AD) is a list of tax payments (involving especially the capitation tax: see the caption \u03bb\u03b1\u03bf\u03b3\u03c1(\u03b1\u03c6\u03af\u03b1\u03c2) at l. 101) where a couple of personal entries are marked as \u201cdead\u201d and a sub-group is titled \u1f10\u03c4\u03b5\u03bb(\u03b5\u03cd\u03c4\u03b7\u03c3\u03b1\u03bd) (l. 86). P.Lond. II 257 + 258 + 259 (Arsinoites, 94\/5 AD) is a census register (laographia kat\u2019andra) with appended lists of special categories, among which the dead (ll. 65 ff.), with detailed chronological references. SB 16.12816 is a population register (Soknopaiou Nesos, 179 AD) recording variations, by reduction (elassomata: cf. l. 20; the same vocabulary occurs in the aforesaid P.Lond. II 259) of the dead and addition of new adults, affecting the tax liability of the local priesthood[12]. P.Sijp. 26 (Philadelphia, 56 AD) is a general summary population account aimed at stating how many men were liable to the poll tax, by subtracting exempted groups, and the dead taken from the proper register (ll. 16-22)[13].\nAn additional disclaimer, sometimes provided at the end of the declarations of death, adds further evidence to the aforesaid theory about the hereditary tax duties. Through this disclaimer, the declarer states that by sending the notice he would not be culpable of anything (anaitios: D7, D10) or that he would not undergo any bothers (D2, D24), which in one case are explicitly indicated as related to tax payments (D103).\nIt is important to stress that the declarations of death had a fully administrative aim: they applied to every individual, involved a personal declaration issued to administrative officials, and had an exclusive tax purpose. They are therefore very different from the medical reports in case of death, which applied to unexpected deceases, either of criminal origin or not, and involved a petition to a higher authority, the aim of which was to obtain an official legal certification. Both cases involved an impressive lot of paperwork, leaving to us the picture that even death was a fundamental element of the State management.\n\n\n[1] Cf. Casarico 1985, 3-6; Ellart 2009, passim, where discussion of the compulsory state of such documents is also provided.\n\n\n[2] Two particular documents are BGU I 45 (AD 203, from Soknopaiou Nesos) and P.Princ. II 29 (AD 258, from Kaminou), two petitions addressed to the strategos of the Herakleides division (Arsinoites) by two privates who report accidents involving severe injury to, respectively, the son of the former (attacked and beaten during agricultural work) and the brother of the latter (fallen from a roof during an attack by Libyans). In both, the writers ask that the case is registered (\u1f10\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c7\u03c9\u03c1\u03b9\u03c3\u03bc\u1ff7 \u03b3\u03b5\u03bd\u03ad\u03c3\u03b8\u03b1\u03b9: BGU 45,16-17; P.Princ. 29,17-18) so that the injured do not die (\u03bc\u1f74 \u1f04\u03c1\u03b1 \u1f00\u03bd\u03b8\u03c1\u03ce\u03c0\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03bd \u03c4\u03b9 | \u03c4\u1ff7 [\u03c5\u1f31\u1ff7] \u03bc\u03bf\u03c5 \u03c3\u03c5\u03bc\u03b2\u1fc7\u03bc\u1f74: BGU 45,18-19; [\u03bc\u03b7\u03b4\u1f72\u03bd] \u1f00\u03bd\u03b8\u03c1\u03c9\u03c0{\u03b5}\u03b9|\u03bd\u1f78\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1ff7 \u03c3[\u03c5\u03bc\u03b2]\u1fc7: P.Princ. 29,18-19). Both look to me (as already to the editor of the Princeton papyrus) like soliciting requests: the impression is that the petitioners had already requested some medical inspection for the injured (see Medicalia Online s.v. Medical report), but the practices were somehow delayed, and now the subjects risk their life (that the writers ask that the report be kept on file in case the injured should die [as argued by HENNIG 2014, 20-1, but already envisaged in the translation by YOUTIE 1978, 293] seems less likely, otherwise they would be very strange and unparalleled cases of declaration of death in advance).\n\n\n[3] So, instead, Ellart 2009, 243. See Medicalia Online s.v. Medical report.\n\n\n[4] Cf. Parassoglou 1978.\n\n\n[5] Cf. Ricciardetto 2013, 114, and Medicalia Online s.v. Medical report.\n\n\n[6] Cf. Ricciardetto 2013, 114.\n\n\n[7] Cf. Ricciardetto 2013, 114 (\u201cle but de se prot\u00e9ger d\u2019\u00e9ventuels soup\u00e7ons d\u2019assassinat\u201d).\n\n\n[8] eklemptor ousias: D9; misthotes ousias: D11; eklemptor gerdion: D12; hegoumenoi hiereon: D13; praktores cheironaxiou gerdion: D21; misthotai (?):D37. Cf. Ellart 2009, 238, who stresses the tax framework of this fact.\n\n\n[9] Cf. Ellart 2009, 240-1. Despite geographical and chronological differences, the structure of the order-clause is quite formulaic, and made up of the following elements: addressed official, in dative (the official is never addressed with his proper name, but only with his title; and in just few cases the name of the village is provided); conditional clause expressing the condition to be fulfilled in order to carry on the official process (\u201cif he has died\u201d; the clause is often enriched with the phrase \u201cin truth\u201d and with the explicit reference to the person in question - \u201cthe aforementioned\u201d); order to register the deceased (anagrapsamenos) and to deliver a sworn report (meta cheirographias prosphoneson) about the matter. During the second decade of the II century AD this detailed order is replaced by a shorter formula, which points to the standardized administrative process (\u201caccomplish accordingly\u201d) that was previously referred to with the phrase \u201cas usual\u201d. A final statement dealing with the responsibility of the official in case that the order is not fulfilled properly is added. D30, dated 110 AD, seems to attest the transition: the phrases meta cheirographias and anagrapsamenos are scrambled and juxtaposed to the summary formula to akolouthon epitelei followed by the statement of responsibility.\n\n\n[10] Cf. Medicalia Online s.v. Medical report.\n\n\n[11] Cf. Ellart 2009, 240.\n\n\n[12] For discussion of this text see Hobson 1984, part. 848-52.\n\n\n[13] Cf. Yiftach-Reggiani 2017 and Reggiani 2018 for further details. On the existence of registers of the dead in Rome cf. Ellart 2009, 224 ff., with earlier bibliography.\n\n"},{"@type":"D. BIBLIOGRAPHY","@lang":"en","@value":"E. Bickermann (1930), Beitr\u00e4ge zu antiken Urkundengeschichte II, APF 9, 24-46.\nB. Boyaval (1981), La date sur les etiquettes de momies, BASP 18, 101-18.\nL. Casarico (1985), Il controllo della popolazione nell\u2019Egitto romano, 1. Le denunce di morte, Azzate.\nC. Sanchez-Moreno Ellart (2009), Las declaraciones de defunci\u00f3n en el imperio romano: el caso de Egipto, in Formae mortis: el tr\u00e1nsito de la vida a la muerte en las sociedades antiguas, coord. por F.M. Sim\u00f3n, F. Pina Polo y J. Remesal Rodr\u00edguez, Barcelona, 217-52.\nT. Grassi (1922), Formulari, \u201cAegyptus\u201d 3, 206-11.\nH. Heinen (2006), Amts\u00e4rztliche Untersuchung eines toten Sklaven. \u00dcberlegungen zu P.Oxy. III 475, in Medicina e societ\u00e0 nel mondo antico. Atti del convegno di Udine (4-5 ottobre 2005), a cura di A. Marcone, Firenze, 194-202.\nD.W. Hobson (1984), P.Vindob. Gr. 24951 + 24556: New Evidence for Tax-Exempt Status in Roman Egypt, in Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia (Napoli 1983), Napoli, III, 847-64.\nTh. Kruse (2002), Der k\u00f6nigliche Schreiber und die Gauverwaltung, Untersuchungen zur Verwaltungsgeschichte \u00c4gyptens in der Zeit von Augustus bis Phillipus Arabs (30 v. Chr. \u2013 245 n. Chr.), I-II, M\u00fcnchen.\nM. Meerson (2010), Seasons of Death for Donors and Testators, in Proceedings of the 25th International Congress of Papyrology (Ann Arbor, July 29 - August 4, 2007), edited by T. Gagos and A. Hyatt, Ann Arbor, 541-9.\nP. Mertens (1958), Les Services de l\u2019\u00c9tat Civil et le contr\u00f4le de la population \u00e0 Oxyrhynchus au IIIe si\u00e8cle de notre \u00e8re, Brussel.\nO. Montevecchi (1946), Ricerche di sociologia nei documenti dell\u2019Egitto greco-romano, V. Le denunce di morte, \u201cAegyptus\u201d 26, 111-29.\nG.M. Par\u00e1ssoglou (1978), The Archive of Aurelius Sakaon: Papers of an Egyptian Farmer in the last Century of Theadelphia, Bonn [= P.Sakaon].\nN. Reggiani (2018), Identifying People in Official Reports: The Administrative Practice in Roman Egypt (I-III cent. CE), in Accounts and Bookkeeping in the Ancient World, edited by A. J\u00f6rdens and U. Yiftach, Wiesbaden 2018, forthcoming.\nW. Scheidel (1999), The Death Declarations of Roman Egypt: A Re-appraisal, BASP 36, 53-70.\nR. Taubenschlag (1955), The Law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the Light of the Papyri, 332 B.C.-640 A.D., Warszawa2 [19441].\nS.L. Wallace (1938), Taxation in Egypt from Augustus to Diocletian, Princeton (NJ)-London.\nW.L. Westermann, C.W.Keyes (1932), edited by, Tax Lists and Transportation Receipts from Theadelphia, New York [= P.Col. II].\nU. Wilcken (1912), Grundz\u00fcge und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde, I Bd. Historischer Teil, II H\u00e4lfte Chrestomathie, Leipzig-Berlin.\nU. Yiftach, N. Reggiani (2017), Synopsis: Data Processing in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, Wiesbaden 2017, forthcoming.\nL.C. Youtie (1976), Mummy Labels, in Collectanea Papyrologica. Texts Published in Honor of H.C. Youtie, II, Bonn, 627-52.\nH.C. Youtie (1978), Critical Trifles VI, ZPE 29, 293-4 [= Scriptiunculae Posteriores, I, Bonn 1981, 465-6]."},{"@type":"E. DDbDP reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"DECLARATIONS OF DEATH\n(CPG II = Casarico 1985)\n\n\n\n\nD#\n\n\nPapyrus\n\n\nProvenance\n\n\nDate AD\n\n\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\n\n1\n\n\nCPG II 1 = P.Oxy. IV 826\n\n\nOxyrhynchites\n\n\n2\/3\n\n\n\n\n2\n\n\nCPG II 2 = P.Mert. I 9\n\n\nTheadelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n12\n\n\n\n\n3\n\n\nCPG II 3 = PRG II 11\n\n\nAnkyron (Ars.)\n\n\n19\n\n\n\n\n4\n\n\nCPG II 4 = P.Fay. 29\n\n\nEuhemeria (Ars.)\n\n\n37\n\n\n\n\n5\n\n\nP.Mich.inv. 888\n\n\nPhiladelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n41-54\n\n\n\n\n6\n\n\nCPG II 5 a&b = SB XIV 11586-7\n\n\nPhiladelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n47\n\n\n\n\n7\n\n\nCPG II 6 = SB XII 11112\n\n\nPhiladelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n48\n\n\n\n\n8\n\n\nSB XX 15037\n\n\nArsinoites\n\n\n49\n\n\n\n\n9\n\n\nCPG II 7 = P.Oxy. XXXVIII 2837\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n50\n\n\n\n\n10\n\n\nP.Gen. III 137\n\n\nPhiladelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n50\n\n\n\n\n11\n\n\nCPG II 8 = SB XVI 12383\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n55\/6\n\n\n\n\n12\n\n\nCPG II 9 = P.Oxy. II 262\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n61\n\n\n\n\n13\n\n\nCPG II 10 = P.Lond. II 281\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\n66\/7\n\n\n\n\n14\n\n\nCPG II 11 = BGU XI 2087, ii\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n41-68\n\n\n\n\n15\n\n\nCPG II 12 = PSI XIV 1433\n\n\n?\n\n\n69\n\n\n\n\n16\n\n\nCPG II 13 = P.Stras. 200\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n70\n\n\n\n\n17\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXV 4478\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n74\n\n\n\n\n18\n\n\nCPG II 14 = BGU II 583\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\na. 76\n\n\n\n\n19\n\n\nCPG II 15 = P.Oxy. XLIX 3510\n\n\nOxyrhynchites\n\n\n78\/9\n\n\n\n\n20\n\n\nCPG II 16 = P.Stras. 522\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n87\n\n\n\n\n21\n\n\nCPG II 17 = P.Oxy. XLI 2957\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n91\n\n\n\n\n22\n\n\nPSI XV 1522\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n91\/2\n\n\n\n\n23\n\n\nCPG II 18 = PSI XV 1522\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n91\/2\n\n\n\n\n24\n\n\nP.Monts.Roca IV 68\n\n\nn.d.\n\n\nI-II\n\n\n\n\n25\n\n\nCPG II 19 = BGU III 773\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\n100\n\n\n\n\n26\n\n\nCPG II 20 = BGU IV 1068\n\n\nApollonias (Ars.)\n\n\n101\n\n\n\n\n27\n\n\nCPG II 21 = P.Lond. II 173\n\n\nKaranis (Ars.)\n\n\n101\n\n\n\n\n28\n\n\nCPG II 22 = PSI VIII 952\n\n\nOxyrhynchites\n\n\n102\n\n\n\n\n29\n\n\nCPG II 23 = P.Med. 35\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n108\n\n\n\n\n30\n\n\nCPG II 24 = SB XIV 11706\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n110\n\n\n\n\n31\n\n\nCPG II 25 = P.Mich. inv. 2841\n\n\nKaranis (Ars.)\n\n\n111\n\n\n\n\n32\n\n\nCPG II 26 = P.Oxy. XII 1550\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n116\n\n\n\n\n33\n\n\nSB XX 15038\n\n\nTebtunis (Ars.)\n\n\n117\n\n\n\n\n34\n\n\nCPG II 27 = P.Iand. 31\n\n\nTheadelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n96-117\n\n\n\n\n35\n\n\nSB XX 15011\n\n\nTebtunis (Ars.)\n\n\n117-138\n\n\n\n\n36\n\n\nCPG II 28 = P.Mich. IX538\n\n\nPsenyris (Ars.)\n\n\n126\n\n\n\n\n37\n\n\nCPG II 29 = PSI inv. 624r\n\n\nToka (Oxyrhynchites)\n\n\n126\/7\n\n\n\n\n38\n\n\nCPG II 30 = PSI IX 1064 i\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n129\n\n\n\n\n39\n\n\nCPG II 31 = PSI IX 1064 ii\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n129\n\n\n\n\n40\n\n\nCPG II 32 a&b = P.Phil. 6-7\n\n\nPhiladelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n129\n\n\n\n\n41\n\n\nP.Narm. 7\n\n\nNarmouthis (Ars.)\n\n\n135\n\n\n\n\n42\n\n\nCPG II 33 = P.Ryl. II 105\n\n\nSentrempaeis (Ars.)\n\n\n136\n\n\n\n\n43\n\n\nCPG II 34 = P.Stras. 70\n\n\nTheadelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n137\/8\n\n\n\n\n44\n\n\nCPG II 35 = P.Lond. II 208a\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n138\n\n\n\n\n45\n\n\nCPG II 36 = P.Stras. 312\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n139\n\n\n\n\n46\n\n\nCPG II 37 = PSI X 1141\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n141\n\n\n\n\n47\n\n\nCPG II 38 = BGU I 17\n\n\nPhilopator (Ars.)\n\n\n142\n\n\n\n\n48\n\n\nPSI Com. 13 ?\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n146\/7\n\n\n\n\n49\n\n\nP.Cair.Mich. II 16\n\n\nKaranis (Ars.)\n\n\n158\/9?\n\n\n\n\n50\n\n\nCPG II 39 = P.Oxy. IX 1198\n\n\nTeis (Oxyrhynchites)\n\n\n150\n\n\n\n\n51\n\n\nCPG II 40 = P.Mich. X 579\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\nc. 150\n\n\n\n\n52\n\n\nCPG II 41 = P.Tebt. II 300\n\n\nTebtunis (Ars.)\n\n\n151\n\n\n\n\n53\n\n\nCPG II 42 = P.Osl. III 97\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n151\n\n\n\n\n54\n\n\nCPG II 43 = BGU XIII 2229\n\n\nBakchias (Ars.)\n\n\n152\/3\n\n\n\n\n55\n\n\nCGP 44 = P.Oxy. XXXI 2564\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n153\n\n\n\n\n56\n\n\nCPG II 45 = SPP XX 8, p. 10\n\n\nKaranis (Ars.)\n\n\n153\n\n\n\n\n57\n\n\nCPG II 46 = P.Ryl. II 106\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n158\n\n\n\n\n58\n\n\nCPG II 47 = BGU XIII 2230 i\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n160\n\n\n\n\n59\n\n\nCPG II 48 = BGU XIII 2230 ii\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n159\/60\n\n\n\n\n60\n\n\nCPG II 49, i = BGU I 254, i\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n160\n\n\n\n\n61\n\n\nCPG II 49, ii = BGU I 254, ii\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n160?\n\n\n\n\n62\n\n\nCPG II 50 = P.Stras. 528\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n145-60\n\n\n\n\n63\n\n\nCPG II 51 = P.Oxy. XXXVI 2761\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n161-9\n\n\n\n\n64\n\n\nCPG II 52 = P.Lond. II 338\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\n170\n\n\n\n\n65\n\n\nCPG II 53 = P.Fay. 30\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n171\n\n\n\n\n66\n\n\nCPG II 54 = P.Oxy. I 173\n\n\nOxyrhynchites\n\n\n174\n\n\n\n\n67\n\n\nCPG II 55 = SPP XX 8, p. 11\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n175\/6\n\n\n\n\n68\n\n\nCPG II 56 = PSI VI 691\n\n\nOxyrhynchites?\n\n\n176\n\n\n\n\n69\n\n\nP.Prag. I 19\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\n177-80\n\n\n\n\n70\n\n\nP.Gen. III 139\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\n178\n\n\n\n\n71\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXV 4479\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n179\n\n\n\n\n72\n\n\nCPG II 57 = P.Stras. 530\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n180\n\n\n\n\n73\n\n\nCPG II 58 = BGU XIII 2231\n\n\nKaranis (Ars.)\n\n\n184\n\n\n\n\n74\n\n\nCPG II 59 a&b = P.Petaus 3-4\n\n\nPtolemais Hormou (Ars.)\n\n\n184\n\n\n\n\n75\n\n\nCPG II 60 = P.Petaus 5\n\n\nPtolemais Hormou (Ars.)\n\n\n184\n\n\n\n\n76\n\n\nCPG II 61 = P.Petaus 6\n\n\nPtolemais Hormou (Ars.)\n\n\n185\n\n\n\n\n77\n\n\nCPG II 62 = P.Petaus 7\n\n\nPtolemais Hormou (Ars.)\n\n\n185\n\n\n\n\n78\n\n\nCPG II 63 = P.Petaus 8\n\n\nPtolemais Hormou (Ars.)\n\n\n185\n\n\n\n\n79\n\n\nCPG II App.2 = P.Petaus 9\n\n\nKerkesoucha Orous (Ars.)\n\n\n185\n\n\n\n\n80\n\n\nCPG II 64 = P.Tebt. II 301\n\n\nTebtunis (Ars.)\n\n\n190\n\n\n\n\n81\n\n\nCPG II 65 = P.Oxy. I 79\n\n\nSesphtha (Oxyrhynchites)\n\n\n180-92\n\n\n\n\n82\n\n\nP.CtYBR inv.606\n\n\nNarmouthis (Ars.)\n\n\n192\n\n\n\n\n83\n\n\nCPG II 66 = P.Mert. II 84\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n201\n\n\n\n\n84\n\n\nCPG II 67 = P.Flor. III 308\n\n\nHermopolites\n\n\n203\n\n\n\n\n85\n\n\nCPG II 68 = P.Fay. 237\n\n\nEuhemeria (Ars.)\n\n\nII-III\n\n\n\n\n86\n\n\nCPG II 69 = P.Leeds 10\n\n\nArsinoites\n\n\nII-III\n\n\n\n\n87\n\n\nCPG II 70 = P.Amst. I 32\n\n\nArsinoites\n\n\nc. II-III\n\n\n\n\n88\n\n\nCPG II 71 = P.Oxy. VII 1030\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n212\n\n\n\n\n89\n\n\nCPG II 72 a&b = SB VI 9627a-b\n\n\nPtolemais Euergetis (Ars.)\n\n\n215\n\n\n\n\n90\n\n\nCPG II 73 = BGU XI 2021\n\n\nArsinoites\n\n\n215\n\n\n\n\n91\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXXIV 4992\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n223\/4\n\n\n\n\n92\n\n\nCPG II 74 = P.Stras. 306\n\n\nTheadelphia (Ars.)?\n\n\n225\n\n\n\n\n93\n\n\nCPG II 74bis = P.Oxy. LII 3689\n\n\nTeis (Oxyrhynchites)\n\n\n226\n\n\n\n\n94\n\n\nCPG II 75 = P.Amst. I 31\n\n\nOxyrhynchites?\n\n\n227\/8\u00a0 228\/9\n\n\n\n\n95\n\n\nCPG II 76 = SB XVI 12712\n\n\nOnomphthis (Hermopolites)\n\n\n229\n\n\n\n\n96\n\n\nCPG II 77 = SB I5137\n\n\nHerakleopolites\n\n\n237\n\n\n\n\n97\n\n\nCPG II 78 = SPP XX 36, ii\n\n\nMouchenomthos (Herakleopolites)\n\n\n237\n\n\n\n\n98\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXXIV 4998\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n253\/4\n\n\n\n\n99\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXXIV 4997\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n254\n\n\n\n\n100\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXXIV 4996\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n254\/5\n\n\n\n\n101\n\n\nCPG II 79 = P.Bour. 26\n\n\nMemphis\n\n\nIII\n\n\n\n\n102\n\n\nCPG II 80 = SB I 5176\n\n\nSoknopaiou Nesos (Ars.)\n\n\nIII\n\n\n\n\n103\n\n\nCPG II 81 = P.Oxy. XLIII 3141\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n299\/300\n\n\n\n\n104\n\n\nP.Mich.inv. 2320\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n300-301\n\n\n\n\n105\n\n\nCPG II 82 = P.Oxy. XIII 1551\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n304\n\n\n\n\n106\n\n\nP.Oxy. LXV 4480\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n311\n\n\n\n\n\u00a0\nNOTICES OF DEATH\n\n\n\n\nN#\n\n\nPapyrus\n\n\nProvenance\n\n\nDate AD\n\n\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\u00a0\n\n\n\n\n1\n\n\nCPG II App.3 = P.Oxy. XLIII 3104\n\n\nOxyrhynchus\n\n\n228\n\n\n\n\n2\n\n\nP.Sakaon 50 = P.Thead. 57\n\n\nTheadelphia (Ars.)\n\n\n317\n\n\n\n"},{"@type":"AUTHOR","@lang":"en","@value":"Nicola Reggiani"}]}