{"tema_id":"136","string":"\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7","created":"2015-08-28 17:17:44","code":null,"notes":[{"@type":"variants","@lang":"en","@value":"var. \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2; dim. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd, \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (pap.)\nlat. caccabus; dim. caccabulus"},{"@type":"GENERAL DEFINITION","@lang":"en","@value":"Deep casserole, earthenware or metallic (of bronze or tin), used in the Greek (Gr. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7, \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2) and Roman (Lat. caccabus) world to cook and boil any kind of food over (low) heat, and in medicine for the preparation of therapeutic remedies. Originally attested almost exclusively in comedy as a type of cookware (V-IV BCE), the term appears to have acquired a certain degree of technicality in medical literature starting from around the first century CE."},{"@type":"A. LANGUAGE BETWEEN TEXT AND CONTEXT","@lang":"en","@value":"1-2. Etymology \u2013 General linguistic commentary\nOriginally the word was written with double consonant. Starting from around the time of Galen the fluctuation between double and single consonant form becomes widespread in medical authors, papyri and Byzantine literature in general.\nBoth feminine \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 and masculine \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2 are common. Only in the manuscript transmission of Alexander of Tralles occurs the feminine \u1f21 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2.[1] Latin caccabus is borrowed from the masculine \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2.[2]\nThe ordinary diminutive in Greek is \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd and in Latin cac(c)abulus.[3] \u00a0\u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd is found twice in A\u00ebtius (see [11]). Not attested elsewhere is the form with the double diminutive suffix \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd that occurs three times in [10] and is composed of the phonetic simplification -\u03b9\u03bd plus -\u03b1\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd of Latin origin.\nNone of the derivatives and compounds of the term is attested in medical texts.[4]\nThe noun \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 is perhaps a loanword of uncertain provenance.[5] Semitic origin has been proposed, comparing Akk. kukkub(b)u, whence Hitt. khukhubu,[6] which denotes a container used during the libations.[7] In spite of the phonetic proximity of the words, the Semitic etymology has been rejected[8] or considered possible but with doubts and reservations.[9] A connection with the pre-Greek stratum has also been hypothesized.[10]\nThe possibility that the name of the cooking vessel is somehow inspired by the name of the bird \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03af\u03c2 (Alcm. fr. 39,3 Page = 91,3 Calame) and \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 (Athen. IX 390a) \u00abpartridge\u00bb,[11] has been raised.[12] On the other hand, probably due to the concave shape of the object, ancient Greek grammarians (para)etymologically connected the word with the verb \u03ba\u03ac\u03c0\u03c4\u03c9, \u00abgulp down\u00bb (LSJ9 876 s.v.), in the sense of \u03ba\u03bf\u03b9\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03c9, \u00abhollow out\u00bb (LSJ9 966 s.v.), hence *\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 and \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 with reduplication.[13] Another para-etymological explanation of the name is based on the noise produced while boiling, see Isid. Orig. XX 8,3 caccabus et cucuma a sono fervoris cognominantur.\nThe Latin caccabus[14] and its cognates live on in the vocabulary of Spanish and of Italian dialects, e.g. in the Neapolitan \u2018caccavella\u2019 (< caccabellus).\nThe lexical and functional continuity of the term in Greek is confirmed by the neuter \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9 (< \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd) in modern Greek,[15] denoting a sizeable container of bronze usually employed as a cooking vessel or for other uses in daily life.\nThe Greek word was borrowed into Sahidic Coptic, as is testified by\u00a0\u2c95\u2c81\u2c95\u2c95\u2c81\u2c83\u2c8f\u0323\u2ca7\u0323\u2c89 in P.Mon.Epiph. 549,7 (VII CE, Thebes), an ostracon preserving an inventory of items, which may conceal a form *\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b7\u03c4\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd vel sim.[16]\n\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\n3. Abbreviation(s) in the papyri\n\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1(\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd): P.Lips. inv. 390c v, 16, as well as 19 and 24 (= AFP Beiheft 33, no. 14) [med]\n\u00a0\n\n\n[1] Cf. Alex. III 7 (II 113,2 and 4, as well as 123,8 Puschmann), IV 1 (II 131,11 Puschmann) and VIII 2 (II 351,6 Puschmann). On the forms of the term, see LSJ9 861 s.v. A and ThGL IV 826C-827A s.v.\n\n\n[2] Cf ERNOUT-MEILLET, DELL 80 s.v.; WALDE-HOFMANN, LEW 126 s.v.; BEEKES, EDG I 619 s.v.\n\n\n[3] Cf. TLL III 5, 14-26 s.v. Another later form is caccabellus, cf. TLL III 5,4-6 s.v. and DU CANGE, GMIL II 10 s.v. cacavellus.\n\n\n[4] For a list of them see BONATI 2014 s.v. 2[1].\n\n\n[5] Cf. FRISK, GEW I 757 s.v. \u00abtechnisches LW aus unbekannter Quelle\u00bb and BEEKES, EDG I 619 s.v. \u00abtechnical LW of unknown origin\u00bb.\n\n\n[6] Cf. esp. LEWY 1895, 106 and 1927, 137; GRIMME 1925, 19; SZEMER\u00c9NYI 1968, 194-5.\n\n\n[7] Cf. SCHROEDER 1930-1931, 111-2 and EBELING 1951, 404.\n\n\n[8] Cf. CHANTRAINE, DELGI 481 s.v.\n\n\n[9] MASSON 1967, 84-5 states: \u00abl\u2019\u00e9tat actuel de nos connaissances ne nous permet pas d\u2019accepter l\u2019\u00e9tymologie akkadienne pour le mot \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u00bb.\n\n\n[10] Cf. BEEKES, EDG I 619 s.v. ContraMASSON 1967, 84: \u00abce mot n\u2019appartient pas au fonds le plus ancien du vocabulaire grec\u00bb.\n\n\n[11] Cf. LSJ9 861 s.v. B.\n\n\n[12] Cf. HEMMERDINGER 1970, 53; LEWY 1927, 137.\n\n\n[13] Cf. e.g. Orion 87,26-30 Sturz s.v. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u0387 \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03b8\u03b7\u03bb\u03c5\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6. \u1f00\u03c0\u1f78 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03ba\u03ac\u03c0\u03c4\u03c9 \u03b4\u03b7\u03bb\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03bf\u03b9\u03bb\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03c9\u0387 \u03ba\u03ac\u03c0\u03c4\u03c9 \u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1fe5\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f78\u03bd \u1f44\u03bd\u03bf\u03bc\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f00\u03bd\u03b1\u03b4\u03b9\u03c0\u03bb\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03b1\u03c3\u03bc\u1ff7 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c0\u03bb\u03b5\u03bf\u03bd\u03b1\u03c3\u03bc\u1ff7 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03ba \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7. \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f43 \u03c0\u03c1\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c8\u03b7\u03c3\u03b9\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03c4\u03ae\u03b4\u03b5\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd. \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u1f00\u03c1\u03c3\u03b5\u03bd\u03b9\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6, as well as Et.Gud. \u03ba 293,1-6 Sturz; EM 485,1-6 Gaisford; Ps.-Zonar. \u03ba 1154,33-1155,4 Tittmann.\n\n\n[14] Cf. MEYER-L\u00dcBKE, REW 134 noo. 1444-5 and ROHLFS, LGII 196 s.v., as well as ERNOUT-MEILLET, DELL 80 s.v., WALDE-HOFMANN, LEW 126 s.v. and SHIPP 1979, 293 s.v.\n\n\n[15] Cf. DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b VII 3537 and \u039d\u039b 725 s.v.; STAMATAKOS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 II 1506 s.v.; BABINIOTIS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 810 s.v.; SHIPP 1979, 293 s.v.\n\n\n[16] Cf. CHERIX, IGC 79 s.v.; F\u00d6RSTER, WGW 366 and n. 6 s.v.\n\n"},{"@type":"B. TESTIMONIA - A selection of representative sources","@lang":"en","@value":"1. IC I xvii 2 a,9 \u2013 II BCE\n\u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03bb, \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u0323[\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2[1]\nThirty pots, [x number of] casserole(s) ...\n\u00a0\n2. Col. RR XII 42 1,1 \u2013 I CE\nCompositio medicamenti ad tormina, quod uocatur \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u1f40\u03c0\u03ce\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2. In caccabo fictili nouo uel in stagneo coquitur musti arbustiui Aminnei urna.\nPreparation of a remedy, called \u201cfruity\u201d, against colic: an urn of must from Aminean grapes grown on trees is boiled in a new ceramic or tin casserole.\n\u00a0\n3. Scrib. Comp. 45,4-8 (30,6-10 Sconocchia) \u2013 I CE\nSpumam, cerussam, salem per se et cum aceto terere oportet mortario, deinde oleo admixto traicere in caccabum amplum [\u2026]. cum haec super ignem posita habuerint emplastri temperaturam mollis, deponere oportebit caccabum.\nTriturate in a mortar silver-spume, ceruse and salt, first in themselves and then adding vinegar. Mix with oil and transfer into a large cooking pot [\u2026]. Put the mix over fire and, when they become like a doughy plaster, remove the pot from heat.\n\u00a0\n4. Gal. De comp. med. per gen. III 5 (XIII 629,2-6 K.) \u2013 II CE\n\u03b2\u03ad\u03bb\u03c4\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u03b4\u1f72 \u03c4\u03b1\u03cd\u03c4\u03b7\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03b4\u03b9\u03c0\u03bb\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03cd\u03bf\u03c5\u03c2 \u03c4\u03ae\u03ba\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd. \u1f40\u03bd\u03bf\u03bc\u03ac\u03b6\u03bf\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd \u03b4\u1f72 \u03bf\u1f55\u03c4\u03c9\u03c2 (sc. \u03c4\u03b7\u03ba\u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03c6\u03ac\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03bd), \u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u1fc3 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u1f78\u03bd \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 \u1f10\u03c7\u03bf\u03cd\u03c3\u1fc3 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03bf\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd\u03af\u03c3\u03c4\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u03c4\u03b7\u03ba\u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f14\u03c7\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03b2\u03ac\u03bd\u03b7\u03bd, \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03ba\u03b1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03c2 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03c2.\nIt is better to melt it in a double vessel. We call it thus (sc. melted remedy), when another vessel is placed in a casserole of hot water, containing the ingredients to be melted, together with galbanum, and the casserole is being heated slowly.\n\u00a0\n5. Id., De comp. med. per gen. II 8 (XIII 509,6-8 K.)\n\u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u03bb\u03c5\u03b8\u1fc7 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2 \u03c4\u03b1\u1fe6\u03c4\u03b1, \u03b8\u1f72\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03c4\u03c9 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f14\u03b1 \u03c8\u03c5\u03b3\u1fc6\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2 [\u2026], \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 [\u2026] \u1f15\u03c8\u03b5 \u03c0\u03ac\u03bb\u03b9\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03bc\u03b1\u03bb\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c0\u03c5\u03c1\u1f78\u03c2, \u1f04\u03c7\u03c1\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f02\u03bd \u03bc\u03b7\u03bb\u03bf\u03b5\u03b9\u03b4\u1f72\u03c2 \u03b3\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9.\nWhen they have melted well, remove the casserole from heat and allow to cool completely [\u2026] cook then again over low heat, until it assumes a quince-yellow colour.\n\u00a0\n6. Ps.-Gal. De remed. parab. III (XIV 548,2 K.)\n\u03b2\u03b1\u03bb\u1f7c\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03af\u1ff3 \u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u1ff7 \u1f22 \u1f10\u03bd \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u1fb3\u2026\nPut in a small lined casserole or pot ...\n\u00a0\n7. Orib. Coll. V 33, 3,2-4 (CMG VI 1,1, 152,7-9 Raeder) \u2013 IV CE\n\u1f15\u03c8\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 \u1f15\u03c9\u03c2 \u03b2\u03c1\u03ac\u03c3\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03bf\u03c5\u03c6\u03af\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1fe5\u03cc\u03b4\u03bf\u03bd \u03c0\u03c9\u03bc\u03ac\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u1f15\u03c9\u03c2 \u03c4\u03b5\u03bb\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c0\u03ad\u03c8\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2, \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f11\u03c8\u03ae\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b9 \u03c7\u03c9\u03c1\u1f76\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f00\u03c0\u03b1\u03c6\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b4\u03b9\u03c5\u03bb\u03af\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1fe5\u03cc\u03b4\u03bf\u03bd \u03bc\u1fd6\u03be\u03bf\u03bd \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b9 \u03c4\u1ff7 \u03b6\u03ad\u03bc\u03b1\u03c4\u03b9 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u1fe5\u03cc\u03b4\u03bf\u03c5.\nThe water shall be brought to the boil and, emptying (some water of) the casserole, add the roses. Cover the casserole with a lid until the roses become completely soft. Boil the honey separately and skim it. Strain the rose and mix the honey with the decoction of the rose.\n\u00a0\n8. Marc. De med. XXII 31 (CML V, 388,11-2 Liechtenhan) \u2013 IV-V CE \nIn olla uel caccabo rudi, sed excocto [\u2026] decoques.\nBoil [\u2026] in a pot or in an unburned, air-dried casserole.\n\u00a0\n9. P.Ant. III 132 Fr. 2a,2 (LDAB 6320, MP3 2391.2) \u2013 VI CE\u00a0\n\u03b5\u0323\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u0323[\u03b7\u03bd\nIn a casserole.\n\u00a0\n10. P.Lips. inv. 390c v,15-24 (= APF Beiheft 33, no. 14; LDAB 143319, MP3 2403.01) \u2013 VI CE\n\u03c0\u03c1\u1ff6\u03c4\u03bf\u03bd \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bb\u03b7\u03b8\u03ac\u03c1\u03b3\u03c5\u03c1(\u03bf\u03bd) (l. \u03bb\u03b9\u03b8\u03ac\u03c1\u03b3\u03c5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd) \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4[\u1f78\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6] | \u03c3\u03c4\u03ad\u03b1\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1[\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1(\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd)\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 ] | [\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb]\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u1fc6\u03c1\u03b9\u03bd | [\u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03b5\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03b8]\u03af\u0323\u03bd\u03b7\u03c2 \u03ba\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u1f11\u03c8\u03ae\u03c3\u1fc3\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u03b1\u1fe6\u03c4\u03b1 | [\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 ] \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c6\u03ad\u03c1\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1(\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd) | [ \u0323 \u0323 ] \u0323[ \u0323 ] \u0323[ \u0323 ] \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f78 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bd\u03ae\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u00b7 \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f78 | \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd (l. \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b9) \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u03c1\u03af\u03c8\u1fc3\u03c2 \u1f45\u03bb\u03b1 \u1f41\u0323\u03bc\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03ba\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u1f76\u0323 \u03bf\u1f55\u03c4\u03c9 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1|\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f45\u03bb\u03bf\u03bd \u03c4\u1f78 \u03c6\u03b1\u03c1\u03bc\u03ac\u03ba(\u03bf\u03bd) \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03b8\u03c5\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd | \u03ba\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u1f76 \u03c4\u03c1\u03af\u03c8\u1fc3\u03c2 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2\u00b7 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03c4\u03b5 [l. \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9] \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 | [\u03ba\u03b1]\u03ba\u0323\u03ba\u0323[\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9]\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1(\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd) \u1f10\u0323\u03ba \u03b4\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u03ad\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b1\u1f35\u03c8\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2[l. \u1f15\u03c8\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2] \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u03cc.\nFirst put the lead monoxide and some animal fat into a little casserole, [\u2026]. Add the wax and the resin of turpentine and cook and these ingredients [\u2026], then bring the casserole down (from the fire) and [put] it into the water. Add also the honey and pound everything together and so throw the whole remedy into a mortar and pound it well. Then transfer it in the casserole for the second time and cook it.\n\u00a0\u00a0\n11. A\u00ebt. I 131,33 and 48 (CMG VIII 1, 66,8 and 23 Olivieri) \u2013 VI CE\n\u03c3\u03c0\u03bf\u03b3\u03b3\u03b9\u03c3\u03b8\u1fc7 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u2026\n... so that the pot be wiped with a sponge.\n\u00a0\n12. Id. XV 46,17-8 Zervos\n\u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u03c3\u03cd\u03c3\u03c4\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c7\u03c1\u03af\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03c5 \u03bb\u03ac\u03b2\u1fc3, \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03ac\u03c7\u03b5\u03b5 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03b9\u03bd\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f15\u03c8\u03b5 \u1f10\u03c0' \u1f00\u03bd\u03b8\u03c1\u03ac\u03ba\u03c9\u03bd \u03bc\u03b1\u03bb\u03b1\u03ba\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f00\u03b4\u03b9\u03b1\u03bb\u03b5\u03af\u03c0\u03c4\u03c9\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b9\u03bd\u1ff6\u03bd.\nWhen it assumes the texture of an ointment, pour it into an unused casserole and cook over low heat moving continually.\n\u00a0\n13. Paul.Aeg. VII 20, 26,10-1 (CMG IX 2, 387,12-3 Heiberg) \u2013 VII CE\n\u1f21\u03bc\u03ad\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03b3 \u1f04\u03c6\u03b5\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f14\u03bb\u03b1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd \u03c4\u1ff7 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u1ff3 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03ce\u03c4\u1ff3 \u1f44\u03bd\u03c4\u03b9\u2026\nLeave the oil for three days in an unlined casserole.\n\u00a0\n14. Id. VII 20, 33,13 (CMG IX 2, 389,19 Heiberg)\n\u1f15\u03c8\u03b5 \u1f10\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u1fc3 \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u1fc3\u2026\nBoil in a lined casserole.\n\u00a0\n15. Hippiatr. Lugd. 81,3 (II 294,1 Oder-Hoppe) \u2013 IX CE\n\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd...\nPut in a small casserole made of bronze ...\n\u00a0\n16. Typicon monasterii Christi Pantocratoris in Constantinopoli, ll.1060-2 (= GAUTIER 1974, 93,7-9) \u2013 1136 CE\n\u1f00\u03c0\u03bf\u03ba\u03b5\u03af\u03c3\u03bf\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u00a0\u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u03c1\u03bf\u03c5\u03bb\u03bb\u03af\u03b1 \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u1fb6 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03b1 \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03bc\u03b1\u03b3\u03b5\u03b9\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f15\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f70 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03c5\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u1ff6\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03bf\u03c7\u03bb\u03af\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f45\u03bb\u03bc\u03bf\u03b9 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03be\u03b5\u03bd\u1ff6\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 \u03c7\u03c1\u03b5\u03af\u03b1\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bb\u03ad\u03b2\u03b7\u03c2 \u03bc\u03ad\u03b3\u03b1\u03c2 \u03b5\u1f37\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03c2.\nSmall cups of bronze and casseroles for the kitchen will be kept in reserve, and other small ones for the therapeutic preparations, and little pestles and mortars for use in the hospital, and one big kettle and another small one.\n\n\n[1] Other supplements are \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba[\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2, \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba[\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2 \/ -\u03b1\u03c2, see comm. ad l. p. 154.\n\n"},{"@type":"C. COMMENTARY","@lang":"en","@value":"1. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 and its medical sources\nThe word \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 \/ \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2 \/ \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd, initially mentioned almost exclusively in comic writers (V-IV cent. BCE) as a common cookware, is a term belonging to the colloquial register of the Greek language.[1] Its earliest possible appearance in a medical context is in an inscription (II BCE) from the temple of Asclepius at Lebena, Crete [1], among \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b5\u03c1\u03ac\u03bc\u03b9\u03bd\u03b1 \u1f00\u03ba\u03ce\u03bd\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1 (l. \u1f00\u03ba\u03ce\u03bd\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1), \u00abunpitched ceramic containers\u00bb, probably representing votive gifts (l.4 \u03c4\u1f70 \u03bb]\u03bf\u03b9\u03c0\u1f70 \u03c0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b4\u03b9\u03b4\u1ff6\u03b9 \u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u1ff6 \u03b8\u03b9\u1ff6 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03b1). A practical, medical use of these casseroles may be only assumed on the basis of the medical associations of the worship at Lebena.[2]\nIn Latin the noun caccabus is attested from the first century CE, mainly in the collection of cooking recipes De re coquinaria which bears the name of Apicius,[3] and in medical literature where the term becomes widespread in the vocabulary of medical prescriptions as a container used in the intermediate phase of preparation of remedies, see Columella [2] and especially Scribonius Largus (15 occurrences, see e.g. [3]).\nPerhaps as a result, the noun was revitalized in written Greek, especially in works of materia medica. In the beginning of this process stand the works of Galen, who lived and worked as a physician in Rome, a fact which may have played a determining role in the renewed use and technicalization of the word in Greek, well attested in all principal medical writers and in the Hippiatrica.[4]\nIt would thus seem that the technicality of the word in Greek was mediated by Latin. An indirect proof that the term did not belong to the specialized language of medical literature before that time is provided by its absence in earlier medical works, especially in the Hippocratic corpus, more or less contemporary with the recurring use of it in comedy.\nThe word is attested on a meagre fragment of a medical codex from Antinoopolis (see [9]) containing pharmacological prescriptions, that is too damaged to reconstruct the context. It is also a possible supplement in a passage of the Michigan Medical Codex, P.Mich. XVII 758 Fv,5-6 (IV CE; LDAB 430, MP3 2407.01) \u1f14\u03bd\u03b2\u0323\u03b1\u0323\u03bb\u0323\u03bb\u0323\u03b5\u0323 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd| [\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2]\u03b7\u03bd, containing the instructions for preparing the juice of date-palm wood used in the remedy called \u03c6\u03bf\u03b9\u03bd\u03b9\u03ba\u03af\u03bd\u03b7. Particularly interesting is the evidence of [10], fragment of a papyrus codex, the small format of which might suggest that it was used by a specialist in the daily exercise of the profession.[5] In the fragment, preserving the recipe for a honey plaster (\u1f21 \u1f00\u03c0\u1f78 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bb\u03b9\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2), the abbreviation \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03b1\u03c1\/ occurs three times (ll.16, 19 and 24). This form of double diminutive is relevant since it does not appears in any other text (vd. supra, A 1-2).\nThe permanence of word and vessel also in the field of medicine is testified by [16], where \u201csmall casseroles for preparation of remedies\u201d (\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f70 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u03c5\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u1ff6\u03bd) are recorded in the typicon of the monastery of Pantocrator in Constantinople (1136 CE) in explicit connection with the hospital of the monastery.\n\u00a0\nMaterial and features\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Only one passage ([15]), containing a prescription against cough, mentions bronze as the material of which the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 is made. Otherwise the material is never explicitly mentioned in Greek medical literature,[6] unlike cases such as \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1 and \u03c0\u03c5\u03be\u03af\u03c2.\nLatin medical sources, on the contrary, provide some information. The most common adjective signifying the material is fictilis \u00abmade of clay\u00bb.[7] This is often combined with novus[8] as ceramic vessels should be \u201cnot previously used\u201d (or at least \u201cclean\u201d) in order to prevent fusion with substances previously absorbed by their walls[9]. When novus is the only qualifier, the ceramic nature of the object is probably implied.[10] The same may be assumed for \u03ba\u03b1\u03b9\u03bd\u03cc\u03c2 in A\u00ebtius ([12]). Finally, in [2] the pharmacist may choose between an earthenware (fictilis) and a tin (stagneus) casserole.\nIn [8], a potion against hepatic diseases, it is recommended cooking the ingredients \u2013 decoquo is verb often used for the cooking of medicines[11] \u2013 in a caccabus described as rudis (\u00abunrefined\u00bb, \u00abraw\u00bb) and excoctus.[12] The adjectives could indicate a caccabus manufactured shortly before its use, and thus not well-finished and only air-dried, in the stage preceding the firing process in the kiln when unbaked clay is turned into terracotta (compare the comments on the meaning of \u1f60\u03bc\u03ae as a qualifier of \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1, see s.v. C.1).\nIn [3] the caccabus is described as amplus. Nothing is said in Greek medical literature about the dimensions of the container. On the other hand, in [16] the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03b1 for cooking the therapeutic preparations are \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u03ac, i.e. smaller than the ones used in the kitchen.\nThe participle \u03c0\u03c9\u03bc\u03ac\u03c3\u03b1\u03c2 in [7] implies the presence of a lid.[13]\nThe adjectives \u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u03cc\u03c2 in [6], which describes the preparation of a kind of \u03b3\u03ac\u03c1\u03bf\u03c2, \u1f00\u03b3\u03ac\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 in [13], a recipe for the \u03ba\u03cd\u03c0\u03c1\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd, an oil made from the flower of the henna tree, and the participle \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 in [14], a recipe for a remedy made with unripe grape, all derive from the verb \u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03cc\u03c9, \u00abtin, lacquer\u00bb (LSJ9 338 s.v. II), which most likely is a generic term for \u201clining\u201d, so that \u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u03cc\u03c2 \/ \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 and \u1f00\u03b3\u03ac\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 may be respectively rendered as \u00ablined\u00bb and \u00abunlined\u00bb. These terms are employed in medical texts in relation to ceramic or bronze containers,[14] but in the passages concerning the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 the material of the vessel is not specified. Containers employed in medicine often had the internal surface lined. This had the specific functional purpose to prevent unintentional chemical reactions and contamination between the volatile substances of the medicines and the material of the vessel in which they were prepared.\n\u00a0\nUse \u00a0\u00a0 The verbal indicators confirm the use of the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 during the stage of preparation and cooking of remedies, sometimes over low heat (see e.g. Orib. Syn. III 38, 2,4 [CMG VI 3, 80,29 Raeder] \u03b2\u03b1\u03bb\u1f7c\u03bd \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03bd \u1f15\u03c8\u03b5 \u03bc\u03b1\u03bb\u03b8\u03b1\u03ba\u1ff7 \u03c0\u03c5\u03c1\u03af). The most common one is \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03c9 (\u00abthrow, put\u00bb) and compounds supplemented by \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 + acc., \u1f10\u03bd + dat. or plain dative. Other verbs used in medical texts are \u03ba\u03b1\u03af\u03c9 (\u00abburn\u00bb), \u1f40\u03c0\u03c4\u03ac\u03c9 (\u00abbake\u00bb), \u1f15\u03c8\u03c9 (\u00abboil\u00bb), \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c7\u03ad\u03c9 (\u00abpour\u00bb), \u03c7\u03bb\u03b9\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03c9 (\u00abwarm up\u00bb) as well as Lat. coquo and compounds. Also \u03bc\u03b5\u03af\u03b3\u03bd\u03c5\u03bc\u03b9 (\u00abmix\u00bb) is used. In [10], after a first phase of cooking marked by the verb \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03c9 + \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (ll.15-6) and followed by the addition of other ingredients (ll.17-8), the casserole is removed from heat and it is put to cool down in the water (ll.19-20 \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u03b1\u03c6\u03ad\u03c1\u03b5\u03b9\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1(\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd) | [ \u0323 \u0323] \u0323[ \u0323] \u0323[ \u0323] \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f78 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03bd\u03ae\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd). Finally, the remedy is thrown into the casserole (\u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03c9 + \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b9\u03bd\u03ac\u03c1\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd) for a second time and it is cooked again. \u00a0\nThe verb \u03c3\u03c0\u03bf\u03b3\u03b3\u03af\u03b6\u03c9 (\u00abwipe with a sponge\u00bb, LSJ9 1628 s.v.) in [11], describing the boiling and the preparation of the spikenard, designates the accurate cleaning of the container when it is reused.\nThe case of the so called \u03c4\u03b7\u03ba\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c6\u03ac\u03c1\u03bc\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1 (medicamenta liquabilia) in [4] illustrates the function of the \u03b4\u03b9\u03c0\u03bb\u1f78\u03bd \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03bf\u03c2: a \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 full of water is placed over heat and used as a steamer having a smaller vessel with the substances inside.[15]\nFinally, the verb \u03c4\u03af\u03b8\u03b7\u03bc\u03b9 and compounds supplemented by \u03ba\u03ac\u03c4\u03c9 or \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u1f70 \u03b3\u1fc6\u03c2 and in Latin depono (sc. de igne)[16] describe the break in the boiling process or the conclusive stage in which the pan is removed from heat (see [5] describing the preparation of the \u03bc\u03b7\u03bb\u03af\u03bd\u03b7 of Menetius).[17]\n\u00a0\n2. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 word and object\nThe shape of the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 cannot be identified with certainty as no direct evidence (e.g. dipinti inscriptions) is available pointing at a specific object. Furthermore, it is likely that the basic typology of the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 had variations in form and dimension according to time and geographic area.[18]\nHowever, comparison between its description in Greek sources and archaeological finds provides grounds to formulate some hypotheses. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 is compared to the \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1 (see s.v.)[19] and the \u03bb\u03bf\u03c0\u03ac\u03c2,[20] a wide, shallow, lidded casserole with two handles,[21] identifiable with e.g. item P 14655 from the Stoa of Athens.[22] The \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 may then have been intermediate in shape between the \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1 and the \u03bb\u03bf\u03c0\u03ac\u03c2, with features of both, and functionally interchangeable with them: a casserole with a deep[23] and maybe rounded body like the \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1, though probably bigger than it,[24] but furnished with a wide mouth, flaring rim flanked to receive the lid and handles rising to the level of the lip, if any, like the \u03bb\u03bf\u03c0\u03ac\u03c2.\nIn addition, the ancient botanical term caccabus designating the rounded berries of the Solanum nigrum L. (also dim. caccabulus) and the large, pretty round, or rather slightly heart-shaped leaves of two species of water lily (Nymphaea alba L. e la Nuphar lutea Sm.)[25] suggest that the body of the vessel was globular.\nThe medical \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba(\u03ba)\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 was in all likelihood identical to its cooking counterpart in shape. In terms of dimensions it may have been smaller in size when used for the preparation of remedies, like the \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b9\u03b1 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u03ac in [16], but bigger when used as a \u03b4\u03b9\u03c0\u03bb\u1f78\u03bd \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03bf\u03c2 to contain a smaller vessel, like in the case of the medicamenta liquabilia (see [4]).\u00a0\n\n\n[1] For a detailed discussion on the term and its chronological history see BONATI 2014 s.v., esp. 2[3].\n\n\n[2] On the possible practical uses of the pottery vessels found in Greek sanctuaries see STISSI 2009, 25-30.\n\n\n[3] On the date and the transmission of the text, cf. FLOWER-ROSENBAUM 1958, 12-4 and GROCOCK-GRAINGER 2006, 13-20.\n\n\n[4] The word occurs in Galen and Ps.-Galen (II CE) 7 times as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2- and 20 as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-, in Oribasius (IV CE) twice as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2- and 17 as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-, in A\u00ebtius (VI CE) 13 times as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2- and 5 as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-, in Alexander of Tralles (VI CE) 9 times (\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-), in Paulus of Aegina (VII CE) only once as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2- and 5 as \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-, in the Hippiatrica (IX CE) 10 times (\u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2-).\n\n\n[5] For the editio princeps of the fragmentary codex belonging to the collection of the Leipzig University Library, see WERNER 2012, 230-49 (= APF Beiheft 33, nos. 13-5). The fragment in question is the no. 14 (pp. 239-44).\n\n\n[6] Mentions to the material are also rare in the rest of Greek literature, cf. Eust. Hom. \u03a8 1290,41 (IV 693,8 Valk) \u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c3\u03ba\u03b5\u1fe6\u03cc\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c3\u03c4\u03b9 \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd and Gp. VIII 25, 1,1 (223,2 Beckh) \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03b5 [\u2026] \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03bd \u1f40\u03c3\u03c4\u03c1\u03ac\u03ba\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd.\n\n\n[7] Elsewhere the container is qualified as aeneus (cf. Col. RR XII 48, 1,6) and argenteus (cf. Iustin. Dig. XXXIV 2,19; 12,3). See TLLIII 5, 35-42 s.v. and BL\u00dcM\u039dER 1911, 156.\n\n\n[8] Cf. e.g. Scrib. Comp. 220,15 (100, 27 Sconocchia); Plin. Iun. De med. III 30,11 (CML III, 91,2 \u00d6nnerfors); Marc. De med. XX 42 (CML V 340, 33 Liechtenhan); Pelag. Veter. fr. 491,7 (129,16 Ihm = fr. 515,6 [88, 6 Fischer]); Cass. Fel. De med. I (8,2 Rose) coques in novo cacabo testeo.\n\n\n[9] This aspect is clearly explained by PE\u00d1A 2007, 57-8 regarding the cooking vessels for food, but the same can be said for the pots used in medicine: \u00abthe repeated use of vessels such as ollae (cookpots) and caccabi (casseroles) for coking\/heating of food or drink may have resulted in the absorption into the vessel wall of food residues and\/or the buildup on the interior surface of incrustations of charred food or, if a vessel was used for the boiling of water, a layer of calcium carbonate. These eventually may have rendered a vessel unsuitable for further use, due either to its poor heat transfer characteristics or to the bad taste that it imparted to any food or drink prepared in it\u00bb. So, the frequency with which ancient authors call for the use of \u201cnew\u201d cookwares \u00absuggests that it may have been a common practice to employ a previously unused cooking vessel when preparing certain recipes, presumably because food residue absorbed in the course of any previous use was held to render a vessel unsuitable. This raises the possibility that cookwares were regarded to some extent as disposable items, to be used once and then either discarded or relegated to some other role\u00bb.\n\n\n[10] Cf. e.g. Plin. Iun. De med. II 27,10 (CML III, 60,2-3 \u00d6nnerfors); Pelag. Veter. IX 166, 3,2 (65,20 Ihm = 28,27 Fischer), XXIV 309,2 (96,28 Ihm = 54,11 Fischer) and XXVI 357,2 (103, 25 Ihm = 60,20 Fischer).\n\n\n[11] Cf. e.g. Scrib. Comp. 62,5 e 66,4 (37,2 and 38,2 Sconocchia), 117,4 (62,13 Sconocchia). Further references in TLLV\/1 201, 55-202, 30 s.v.\n\n\n[12] The verb excoquo is employed \u00abquasi technice de terra\u00bb (see TLLV\/2 1281, 35 and 45-6 s.v.) with the value \u00abto dry\u00bb, such as in Lucr. VI 962 principio terram sol excoquit et facit are and Verg. Georg. II 259-60 his animadversis terram multo ante memento \/ excoquere.\n\n\n[13] A \u03c0\u1ff6\u03bc\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03af\u03bf\u03c5 features in two inventories on papyrus, P.Lond. V 1657,6 (IV-V CE ?) and P.Berl.Sarisch. 21,19 (V-VI CE, Hermopolis ?).\n\n\n[14] Cf. Gal. De comp. med. sec. loc. I 8 (XII 490, 11 and 491,10-1 K.) \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd and \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd; De ther. ad Pis. 13 (XIV 266,11-2 K.) \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u03bb\u03ad\u03b2\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1 \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2; A\u00ebt. VI 58, 58 (CMG VIII 2, 208,15 Olivieri) \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd; VIII 3, 3-4 (CMG VIII 2, 405,19-20 Olivieri) \u1f10\u03bd \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u1ff3 \u03c7\u03b1\u03bb\u03ba\u1ff7 \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u1ff3; A\u00ebt. XII 1,250 (19,5 Kostomiris) \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03b5 \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u1f40\u03c3\u03c4\u03c1\u03ac\u03ba\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03c4\u03cc\u03bd. Especially noteworthy is A\u00ebt. XII 55,28-9 (95, 18-96,1 Kostomiris) \u03b5\u1f30\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u03b3\u03b5\u03b3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03c4\u1ff7 \u03ba\u03b1\u03c3\u03c3\u03b9\u03c4\u03ad\u03c1\u1ff3 where the participle and the instrumental dative explicitly convey the presence of a tin enamel, i.e. \u00absealed with tin\u00bb.\n\n\n[15] Cf. Gal. De comp. med. per gen. I 4 (XIII 383,10-3 K.) \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03b4\u03b9\u1f70 \u1fe5\u03bf\u03b4\u03af\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5 \u03b4\u1f72 \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03c4\u03bf\u03cd\u03c4\u03c9\u03bd \u1f14\u03c4\u03b7\u03be\u03b1 \u03c0\u03bf\u03bb\u03bb\u03ac\u03ba\u03b9\u03c2 \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f78, \u03c0\u03c1\u03bf\u03cb\u03c0\u03bf\u03ba\u03b5\u03b9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03c2 \u03c4\u1ff7 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u03af\u1ff3 \u03ba\u03b1\u03b8' \u1f43 \u03c4\u03ae\u03ba\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03c2, \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 \u03bc\u1f72\u03bd \u1f10\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1fc7 \u1f10\u03c7\u03bf\u03cd\u03c3\u03b7\u03c2 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u1f78\u03bd, \u1f04\u03bd\u03b8\u03c1\u03b1\u03be\u03b9 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03b4\u03b9\u03b1\u03c0\u03cd\u03c1\u03bf\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f10\u03c0\u03b9\u03ba\u03b5\u03b9\u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03b7\u03c2 \u1f22 \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c6\u03bb\u03bf\u03b3\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f00\u03ba\u03ac\u03c0\u03bd\u03bf\u03c5 and De alim. facult. III 22 (VI 707,3-5 K.) \u1f10\u03bd\u03c4\u03b9\u03b8\u03ad\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd \u1f55\u03b4\u03c9\u03c1 \u1f10\u03c7\u03bf\u03cd\u03c3\u1fc3 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u1fc3 \u03b8\u03b5\u03c1\u03bc\u03cc\u03bd, \u03b5\u1f36\u03c4\u03b1 \u03c0\u03c9\u03bc\u03ac\u03c3\u03b1\u03bd\u03c4\u03b5\u03c2 \u1f04\u03bd\u03c9\u03b8\u03b5\u03bd \u1f45\u03bb\u03b7\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u1f51\u03c0\u03bf\u03ba\u03b1\u03af\u03bf\u03c5\u03c3\u03b9 \u03bc\u03ad\u03c7\u03c1\u03b9 \u03c3\u03c5\u03c3\u03c4\u03ac\u03c3\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u03c1\u03af\u03b1\u03c2 (see also Orib. Coll. II 45 6,2-4 [VI 1,1, 42,13-4 Raeder]).\n\n\n[16] Cf. Scrib. Comp. 210,6-7 (98,1-2 Sconocchia); 212,7 and 213,7 (98,15 and 25 Sconocchia); 214,11 (99,12 Sconocchia).\n\n\n[17] A similar boiling process is described for the \u03bc\u03b7\u03bb\u03af\u03bd\u03b7 of Serapion in Gal. De comp. med. per gen. II 9 (XIII 510,11-4 K.) \u03c0\u03c1\u03bf\u03b5\u03af\u03c1\u03b7\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9 \u03b4' \u1f45\u03c4\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03b1\u03bb\u03b1\u03ba\u1ff6\u03c2 \u1f15\u03c8\u03b5\u03c3\u03b8\u03b1\u03b9 \u03c7\u03c1\u1f74, \u03bc\u03ac\u03bb\u03b9\u03c3\u03c4\u03b1 \u1f45\u03c4\u03b1\u03bd \u1f41 \u1f30\u1f78\u03c2 \u1f10\u03bc\u03b2\u03bb\u03b7\u03b8\u1fc7. \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03ad\u03bd\u03c4\u03bf\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u1f45\u03c4\u03b9 \u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd \u03b1\u1f50\u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03c7\u03c1\u1f74 \u03ba\u03b1\u03b8\u03ad\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u03c4\u1f70 \u03b3\u1fc6\u03c2 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f78\u03bd \u1f00\u03c0\u03bf\u03c8\u03cd\u03c7\u03bf\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03bc\u1fb6\u03bb\u03bb\u03bf\u03bd \u1f10\u1f70\u03bd \u03bc\u03b9\u03ba\u03c1\u1f78\u03bd \u1f96 \u03c4\u1f78 \u1f00\u03b3\u03b3\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bf\u03bd, \u1f10\u03bd \u1fa7 \u1f21 \u1f15\u03c8\u03b7\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 \u03b3\u03af\u03bd\u03b5\u03c4\u03b1\u03b9. See also Gal. De comp. med. sec. loc. VI 3 (XII 914,6-10 K.) \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c3\u03bc\u03cd\u03c1\u03bd\u03b1\u03bd \u03b4\u1f72 \u03ba\u03b1\u1f76 \u03c4\u1f78\u03bd \u03ba\u03c1\u03cc\u03ba\u03bf\u03bd \u1f04\u03bc\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u1f10\u03c0\u1f76 \u03c4\u1ff7 \u03c4\u03ad\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9 \u03c4\u1fc6\u03c2 \u1f11\u03c8\u03ae\u03c3\u03b5\u03c9\u03c2 \u03c0\u03c1\u03bf\u03c3\u03b5\u03bc\u03b2\u03ac\u03bb\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03bd, \u1f04\u03c7\u03c1\u03b9 \u03c4\u03bf\u03c3\u03bf\u03cd\u03c4\u03bf\u03c5 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u1ff6\u03bd \u1f04\u03bb\u03bb\u03c9\u03bd \u1f15\u03c8\u03bf\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1\u03c2 \u1f22 \u03bc\u03b5\u03c4\u1f70 \u03c4\u1f78 \u03b8\u03b5\u1fd6\u03bd\u03b1\u03b9 \u03ba\u03ac\u03c4\u03c9 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03bd \u03ba\u03b9\u03bd\u03bf\u1fe6\u03bd\u03c4\u03b1\u03c2, \u1f04\u03c7\u03c1\u03b9\u03c2 \u03bf\u1f57 \u03c0\u03ac\u03bd\u03b8' \u1f11\u03bd\u03c9\u03b8\u1fc7 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bb\u1ff6\u03c2, and Orib. Syn. III 173, 3,3-4 (CMG VI 3, 109,17-8 Raeder).\n\n\n[18] BONATI 2014 s.v. 3.\n\n\n[19] Hesych. \u03ba 313 L. s.v. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u0387 [\u2026] \u1f22 \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1, \u1f23\u03bd \u1f21\u03bc\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03bd and Phot. \u03ba 83 Th. s.v. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03bd\u0387 [\u2026] \u03c3\u03b7\u03bc\u03b1\u03af\u03bd\u03b5\u03b9 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03c4\u1f74\u03bd \u03c7\u03cd\u03c4\u03c1\u03b1\u03bd.\n\n\n[20] See e.g. Hesych. \u03ba 314 L. s.v. \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03c2\u0387 \u1f22 \u03bb\u03bf\u03c0\u03ac\u03c2 and Phot. \u03ba 84 Th. (= Dionys. Gramm. \u03ba 4 Erbse) s.v. \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u00b7 \u1f43\u03bd \u1f21\u03bc\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03ba\u03ac\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03bf\u03bd\u0387 \u1f14\u03c3\u03c4\u03b9 \u03b4\u1f72 \u03bb\u03bf\u03c0\u03b1\u03b4\u1ff6\u03b4\u03b5\u03c2, \u1f14\u03c7\u03c9\u03bd \u1f10\u03be \u1f11\u03b1\u03c5\u03c4\u03bf\u1fe6 \u03c4\u03c1\u03b5\u1fd6\u03c2 \u03c0\u03cc\u03b4\u03b1\u03c2. See also Poll. X 106,2-107,1.\n\n\n[21] Cf. AMYX 1958, 197 n. 74 and 210 n. 76; SPARKES 1962, 130 and 1991, 84; SPARKES-TALCOTT 1970, 227-8.\n\n\n[22] Ca. 375-350 BCE; height 9 cm, diam. 22, 6 cm. See http:\/\/www.agathe.gr\/id\/agora\/object\/p%2014655.\n\n\n[23] Cf. Antiph. fr. 216, 3 K.-A. \u03ba\u03bf\u03af\u03bb\u03bf\u03b9\u03c2 \u1f10\u03bd \u03b2\u03c5\u03b8\u03bf\u1fd6\u03c3\u03b9 \u03ba\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03ac\u03b2\u03b7\u03c2.\n\n\n[24] See the (comic) adjective \u1f30\u03c3\u03bf\u03c4\u03c1\u03ac\u03c0\u03b5\u03b6\u03bf\u03c2 in Antiph. fr. 180,2 K.-A.\n\n\n[25] References to ancient Greek and Latin literature in ANDR\u00c9 1956, 63 and 1985, 43 s.vv. On the metaphorical origin of the term see also ERNOUT-MEILLET, DELL 80 s.v. and CHANTRAINE, DELGI 481 s.v.\n\n"},{"@type":"D. BIBLIOGRAPHY","@lang":"en","@value":"1. Lexicon entries\nThGL IV 826C-827A s.v.; TLL III 5,15-70 s.v.; LSJ9 861 s.v. A; CHANTRAINE, DELGI 481 s.v. 1; FRISK, GEWI 757-8 s.v. 1; BEEKES, EDG I 618 s.v. 1;WALDE-HOFMANN, LEW 126 s.v.; ERNOUT-MEILLET, DELL 80 s.v.; BABINIOTIS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 810 s.v.; DIMITRAKOS, \u039c\u039b VII 3537 and \u039d\u039b 725 s.v.; STAMATAKOS, \u039b\u039d\u0395\u0393 II 1506 s.v.; SHIPP 1979, 293 s.v.; SAGLIO, DA I\/2 774 s.v.; KIPFER 2000, 87 s.v.\n\u00a0\n2. Secondary literature \nLEWY 1895, 106;MAU 1897, 1164 s.v.; BL\u00dcM\u039dER 1911, 156; HUG 1919, 1526 s.v.; KOUKOUL\u00c8S1948, 99-100; MASSON 1967, 83-5; BONATI 2016, 87-105\u00a0s.v."},{"@type":"E. CPGM reference(s)","@lang":"en","@value":"P.Ant. III 132 Fr.2a,2\nP.Mich. XVII 783 Fv, 5-6 (?)\nP.Lips. inv. 390c v,16, as well as 19 and 24 (= APF Beiheft 33, no. 14)"},{"@type":"AUTHOR","@lang":"en","@value":"Isabella Bonati"}]}